LC
Scopoli's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Calonectris diomedea and C. borealis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. diomedea following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), which was also formerly lumped with C. edwardsii following Hazevoet (1995), contra Brooke (2004).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2015 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 74,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 285000-446000 medium estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 19.3 - - -

Population justification: The most recent assessment of the European population provided an estimate of 30,500-48,100 pairs, equating to 61,000-96,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The largest colony on Zembra Island, Tunisia, is estimated at 113,720-176,750 pairs (Defos du Rau et al. 2012). The global population has been estimated at 142,478-222,886 pairs (Defos du Rau et al. 2012, Derhé 2012, Carboneras et al. 2013), assumed here to be equivalent to c.285,000-446,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is estimated to be declining. The species’s population is estimated and projected to be declining by c.2% over three generations (1980-2038), although this is based on data from only 6% of the population (Derhé 2012, Carboneras et al. 2013). The European population is estimated to be declining by less than 25% in three generations (BirdLife International 2015). Estimates of adult survival and breeding probabilities in Tunisia are required to fully estimate the global population trend (Carboneras et al. 2013).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Angola N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Belgium U Presence Uncertain
Benin N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria V Extant
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia U Presence Uncertain
Denmark U Presence Uncertain
Egypt N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) U Presence Uncertain
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Germany U Presence Uncertain
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Ireland U Presence Uncertain
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Netherlands U Presence Uncertain
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Norway U Presence Uncertain
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland U Presence Uncertain
Portugal N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Sweden U Presence Uncertain
Switzerland U Presence Uncertain
Syria N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
United Kingdom U Presence Uncertain
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malta Ta'Cenc cliffs
Malta Filfla islet
Malta Rdum Tal-Madonna
Malta Comino island
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Strofades islets
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Saria island and northern Karpathos
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Kythira island
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Agioi Theodoroi islet, Crete
Greece Anafi island
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Koufonisi island, Crete
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Gramvousa peninsula and Gramvouses and Pontikonisi islets, Crete
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Spain Columbretes islands
Spain Littoral islets of Murcia and Almería
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Chafarinas Islands
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza)
Spain Islets of Santa Eulalia, Redona and Es Canar (Ibiza)
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Iles Cerbicale
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Iles Finocchiarola et côte de Tamarone à Centuri
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Iles d'Hyères
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Ponziane islands
Italy Tremiti islands
Italy Maddalena archipelago and Cape Ferro
Italy Asinara island, Piana island and Stintino peninsula
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands
Italy Eolie islands
Italy Egadi islands
Italy Pantelleria and Isole Pelagie
Italy Capes and islands of south-eastern Sardinia
Italy Coast from Palo to Santa Marinella
Italy Argentario
Greece Diapontia islands (Othonoi, Ereikousa, Mathraki) and surrounding islets
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island
Croatia Prvic island
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Tunisia Archipel de Zembra
Greece Rineia, Chtapodia and Tragonisi islets, Mykonos
Croatia Offshore Islands
Croatia Lastovo Archipelago
Italy Circeo National Park and Pontine islands
Malta West of Wied ix-Xaqqa to Wied Maqbyl Cliffs
Malta West of il-Hagra s-Sewda to ix-Xaqqa Cliffs
Malta il-Kullana to ta' Gifen Cliffs
Malta Ic-Cnus to Tal-Bardan Cliffs
Malta Xlendi Bay to Wardija Point Cliffs
Malta Dwejra Bay to San Dimitri Point
Greece Mikres Kyklades and Amorgos marine area
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca
Spain Banco de La Concepción
Tunisia Zembra and Zembretta Islands - Marine
Malta Għawdex marine
Italy Isole Pelagie
Italy Middle Adriatic
Italy Northern Sardinia
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Peloritani mountains
Malta Tramuntana offshore
Malta Grigal offshore
Malta Għawdex marine
Malta Lvant marine
Malta Xlokk offshore
Malta Nofsinhar offshore
Malta Lbiċ marine
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North
Morocco Canary current shelf 1
Morocco Canary current shelf 2
Morocco Canary current shelf 3
Morocco Canary current shelf 4

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Calonectris diomedea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/12/2020.