LC
Scaly-breasted Kingfisher Actenoides princeps



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Actenoides princeps was previously split into A. princeps and A. regalis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014), prior to which these two forms were lumped as now as A. princeps following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993). Taxon regalis differs from princeps in black vs dark blue forecrown and “face” (malar area to ear-coverts) and dull blue-green vs dark blue mid-crown to hindcrown (3); lack of buff barring on mantle, back and scapulars (2); much stronger buff on underparts (at least in female) (2). However, regalis is unknown in life, only two specimens are known and there is likely to be substantial unknown diversity within princeps, as a sighting of a plain-bellied bird on Mt Tumpu in 2014 suggests, so regalis is returned as a subspecies of princeps until more is known. Occasionally placed in separate genus Monachalcyon. Three subspecies recognized.

Taxonomic source(s)
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2023. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 8. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v8_Dec23.zip.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2023 Least Concern
2016 Not Recognised
2014 Not Recognised
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 280,000 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown - - -
Population trend decreasing - suspected 2016-2028
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-5% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-5% - - -
Generation length 3.88 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 3-30 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been specifically estimated, but the species is reported to be uncommon (del Hoyo et al. 2001, Eaton et al. 2021). Although eBird (2023) data suggest that it is sparsely distributed, much of its range is totally inaccessible. Moreover, Actenoides kingfishers are elusive with low detectability (Fry and Fry 1999). Within its large range remains 30,000 km2 of forest, such that even if it does prove to occur at an unusually low density/occupancy, the population size is very likely to be above 10,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population was previously suspected of undergoing sustained population losses because of habitat loss. However, recent remote sensing data (Global Forest Watch 2023, based on data and methods from Hansen et al. [2013]) suggest that in the three generations (12 years) to 2023, this amounted to no more than 2% loss of forest cover extent. Future projections (Voigt et al. 2021) also show the majority of this species' range remaining intact up to 2050. Consequently, although the species is considered highly forest dependent, it is thought to be declining only slowly in response to localised forest loss and degradation, particularly at the lowest elevations of its range. Rates of population reduction are therefore not likely to have exceeded 5% over three generations and, even if rates accelerate (Voigt et al. 2021), are unlikely to exceed 9% in the next three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Indonesia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Tangkoko Dua Sudara
Indonesia Bogani Nani Wartabone
Indonesia Lore Lindu
Indonesia Morowali
Indonesia Mekongga
Indonesia Pegunungan Latimojong

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 900 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 250 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Actenoides princeps. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/scaly-breasted-kingfisher-actenoides-princeps on 03/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 03/03/2024.