LC
Saunders's Tern Sternula saundersi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Sternula saundersi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 17,800,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to disturbance and predation at breeding sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt U Extant
Eritrea N Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq U Extant
Israel V Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania N Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Kenya Mida Creek, Whale Island and the Malindi - Watamu coast
Kenya Sabaki River Mouth
Kenya Tana River Delta
Madagascar Ambavanankarana wetland
Tanzania Dar es Salaam coast
Tanzania Rufiji Delta
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-East Coast
United Arab Emirates Sir Bani Yas Islands
United Arab Emirates Yasat Island
United Arab Emirates Abu Al Abyad Island
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Bahrain Hawar Islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Faror islands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Khor Dirif
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Yemen Al-'Urj
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah
Yemen North coastal plain: airport to Di Selmeho / Ghubbah (Socotra)
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Oman Masirah - Marine
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali / Gulf coral islands - Marine
United Arab Emirates Ghagha Island
United Arab Emirates Salahah Island
United Arab Emirates Muhaimat Island
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Yemen Abd al-Kuri (Socotra)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Sternula saundersi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/03/2021.