VU
Sarus Crane Antigone antigone



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cde+3cde+4cde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2012 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,830,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 13000-15000 good estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.6 - - -

Population justification: There are thought to be 8,000-10,000 individuals in India, Nepal and Pakistan; 800-1,000 in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, 500-800 in Myanmar (unpublished information supplied by Wetlands International Specialist Groups 2006), and about 10,000 breeding adults in Australia (Garnett and Crowley 2000, R. Jaensch in litt. 2005 to Wetlands International 2006). The population size thus totals 19,000-21,800 individuals, roughly equivalent to 13,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to have decreased, owing to the loss and degradation of wetlands, as a result of drainage and conversion to agriculture, ingestion of pesticides, and the hunting of adults and collection of eggs and chicks for trade, food, medicinal purposes and to help limit damage to crops.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
India N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extinct Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Philippines N Extinct Yes
Thailand N Extinct Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Atherton Tablelands
Australia Gulf Plains
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv
Cambodia Chhep
Cambodia Kampong Trach
Cambodia Lomphat
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands
Cambodia Preah Net Preah / Kra Lanh / Pourk
Cambodia Sre Ambel
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Western Siem Pang
India Alniya Dam
India Amangarh Reserve Forest
India Bagdarrah Closed Area
India Bakhira Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bandhavgarh National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Bardha Dam
India Barna Reservoir
India Basai wetlands
India Bhal area
India Bhashkarpara
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhoj wetland
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India Dhanauri wetland
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Dighal wetland
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Dudhwa National Park
India Gawana Arain, Mangaliyawas, Ramsar, Goyal, Ratakot, Badar
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
India Halali Reservoir
India Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary
India Jawai Dam Leopard Conservation Reserve
India Kanha National Park
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage
India Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Keshopur Miani (or Chhamb) Community Reserve
India Kharda Dam
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary
India Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kudaiyya marshland
India Kumbalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kurra Jheel
India Lagga - Bagga Reserve Forest
India Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary
India Loktak Lake
India Mahaveer Swami Wildlife Sanctuary (Lalitpur)
India Menar Lake
India Mirgund Jheel and Reserve
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Narora
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah)
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota)
India Navegaon National Park
India Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Parvati Aranga Wildlife Sanctuary
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
India Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
India Pyagpur and Sitadwar Jheel
India Rampura Grassland
India Ramsagar Lake
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve
India Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sailana Kharmor Sanctuary
India Saman Bird Sanctuary
India Samaspur Bird Sanctuary
India Sandi Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sardar Samand Lake
India Sareri Bandh
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
India Sarsai Nawar Lake
India Sauj Lake
India Sei Dam reservoir and surrounding environs
India Sheikha Jheel
India Sirpur Lake
India Sohagibarwa Wildlife Sanctuary
India Sonkhaliya Closed Area
India Sultanpur National Park
India Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
India Surajpur wetland
India Surha Tal Wildlife Sanctuary
India Tadoba National Park and Andhari Tiger Reserve
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Udaipur Lakes Complex
India Valmiki Tiger Reserve and Saraiyaman Lake
India Velavadar National Park
India Vijay Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Wetlands of Kheda
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Yeshwantsagar Reservoir
Laos Xe Kong Plains
Myanmar Ayeyarwady Delta (including Meinmahla Kyun)
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Inle Lake
Myanmar Kaladan River
Myanmar Moyingyi
Myanmar Nadi Kan
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Philippines Agusan Marsh
Vietnam Kien Luong
Vietnam Lang Sen
Vietnam Tram Chim

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Antigone antigone. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 15/12/2019.