CR
Sao Tome Grosbeak Crithagra concolor



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Crithagra concolor (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Neospiza following Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
B1ab(iii,v); C2a(ii) B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v); C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v);C2a(i,ii);D
2013 Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v);C2a(i,ii);D
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v);C2a(i,ii);D
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii); D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 200 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.3 - - -

Population justification: The species is assumed to have a tiny population because all fieldwork has found it to be very rare and it is regularly recorded from just one area. A recent survey between July and September 2014 recorded eight birds (Ward-Francis et al. 2015), but a survey between 2013 and 2014 collated 22 records of this species (de Lima et al. in press). It is very difficult to detect so could be more abundant than current records suggest (Ward-Francis et al. 2015, de Lima et al. in press), and whilst still having a very small population, this recent evidence suggests there could be >50 mature individuals. Therefore it is placed in the range of 50-249 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be declining as a result of ongoing habitat degradation, plus the impacts of introduced predators, however the rate of decline has not been estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
São Tomé e Príncipe São Tomé lowland forests

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Crithagra concolor. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/07/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/07/2018.