Sao Tome Green-pigeon Treron sanctithomae


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii,v) A2cd+3cd+4cd; B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2018 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd; C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(ii)
2011 Vulnerable A2c,d; C2a(ii)
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 699 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 792
Number of locations 1 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 24670-72840 poor estimated 2010
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2013-2026
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 30-49 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (years) 4.5 - - -

Population justification: Carvalho (2015) estimates the population to be in the range 37,007-109,255 individuals, which roughly equates to 24,670-72,840 mature individuals.

Trend justification:

The population is inferred to be declining owing to hunting pressure. This species is a preferential target for hunters, and has disappeared or become scarce in accessible areas (Carvalho 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
São Tomé e Príncipe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
São Tomé e Príncipe São Tomé lowland forests
São Tomé e Príncipe São Tomé montane and cloud-forests
São Tomé e Príncipe Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé e Zona Tampão

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Treron sanctithomae. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/sao-tome-green-pigeon-treron-sanctithomae on 30/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 30/09/2023.