NT
Sao Paulo Tyrannulet Phylloscartes paulista



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2023 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 856,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals poor suspected 2004
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2017-2027
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Generation length 2.22 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 4-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: The species' stronghold appears to be in the Serra do Mar in Brazil where it is considered fairly common, while it is described as uncommon or rare in Paraguay and Argentina (see eBird 2023). In Argentina, the population numbers less than 2,500 mature individuals (MAyDS and AA 2017).
The overall population size has not been quantified, but it has been suspected that it may number fewer than 10,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2004, Fitzpatrick 2022). In the absence of a recent estimate the population is therefore tentatively placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, though an accurate quantification is urgently required.

Trend justification: The population trend has not been investigated. However, observational records suggest that the population has undergone declines particularly in the Argentinian and Paraguayan part of its range, where records have become increasingly infrequent over the past decades and the range appears to have contracted considerably (eBird 2023). Population declines are likely driven by forest loss and fragmentation (Fitzpatrick 2022). Habitat loss appears more extensive in Paraguay and Argentina, while in the Serra do Mar in Brazil large areas of forest remain (Global Forest Watch 2023).
Overall within the range, 8-9% of tree cover is lost over ten years (Global Forest Watch 2023, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). Due to the additive impacts of forest degradation and fragmentation population declines are likely steeper than the rate of tree cover loss suggests; they are here tentatively placed in the band 10-19% over ten years. It is however noted that the rate of decline may vary locally, with steeper declines suspected in the western part of the range and slower declines or even stable populations in the east.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Argentina extant native yes
Brazil extant native yes
Paraguay extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Parque Nacional Iguazú y alrededores
Argentina San Antonio
Argentina Reserva Privada Yaguaroundí
Argentina Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí
Argentina Campo San Juan
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Alegría
Argentina San Pedro
Argentina Parque Provincial Uruzú y Reserva Forestal San Jorge
Paraguay Bosque Mbaracayú
Paraguay Ka'aguy Rory
Paraguay Serranías de San Joaquín
Paraguay Ybyturuzú
Paraguay Estancia Itabó
Paraguay Ypeti
Paraguay Parque Nacional Caazapá
Paraguay Parque Nacional San Rafael
Brazil Serra do Marumbi
Brazil Parque Nacional do Iguaçu
Brazil Salto do Piraí
Brazil Região de Blumenau
Brazil Urubici
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia
Brazil Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Caraguatatuba e Picinguaba)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes paulista. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/sao-paulo-tyrannulet-phylloscartes-paulista on 01/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 01/03/2024.