Santarem Parakeet Pyrrhura amazonum


Justification of Red List Category
Based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its potential susceptibility to trapping for the bird trade, it is suspected that the population of this newly-split parakeet is declining very rapidly over three generations, and it has therefore been listed as Endangered.

Population justification
The global population size is unknown given recent taxonomic splits.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 43.0-52.1% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by >50% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Pyrrhura amazonum is found in central and south eastern Amazonian Brazil, on both banks of the Amazon. Seems to be found east of the Rio Negro on the north bank and east of the Rio Tapajos in Para, south east to Tocantins. Occurs north and east of P. snethlagae, but exact distributions not precisely known.


Assumed to be similar to other Pyrrhura formerly included within P. picta: humid terra firme forest and edge, seasonally flooded várzea and feeding on fruit, seeds and flowers (del Hoyo et al. 1997).


The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011). Capture for the wild bird trade may represent a significant further threat.

Conservation actions

Conservation and research actions underway
None is known.

Conservation and research actions proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.


22 cm. One of the medium-sized, long-tailed, largely green parakeets formerly included within P. picta.


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Pyrrhura amazonum. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2021.