EN
Santa Marta Parakeet Pyrrhura viridicata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,600 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,572
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1800-3200 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-9 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: The population has long been estimated to number 5,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 3,300-6,700 mature individuals. More recently however, population densities of 4.1–7.1 individuals/km2 have been found (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012). Based on this density, the population has been extrapolated to c. 2,790-4,140 (Renjifo et al. 2016) or 2,900-4,800 individuals, respectively (Botero-Delgadillo et al. 2012). These estimates equate to roughly 1,800-3,200 mature individuals. It is nevertheless feared that the population size may be substantially smaller (P. Salaman in litt. 2020).

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a slow decline caused by habitat loss through logging and forest fires, as well as hunting and persecution (Renjifo et al. 2016; Botero-Delgadillo 2020; P. Salaman in litt. 2020). Until recently the species was judged to be fairly common, but it has surely become less abundant (Ridgely 1981; Hilty and Brown 1986; Renjifo et al. 2016).
Over the past three generations (11.4 years; Bird et al. 2020), tree cover loss within the range has been very slow, amounting to ~2% over this period (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). As the species tolerates some forest degradation and fragmentation (Botero-Delgadillo 2020), forest loss alone is unlikely to drive rapid population declines. A projection of deforestation within the range for the period 2015-2040 suggests that habitat loss will continue at a rate of 3% over the next three generations (Negret et al. 2021). The impact of hunting has not been quantified, but is suspected to be low (Botero-Delgadillo 2020). Therefore, it is suspected that population declines do not exceed 10% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Colombia Cuchilla de San Lorenzo
Colombia Valle del Río Frío
Colombia Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Natural Park and surrounding areas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 1700 - 3200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pyrrhura viridicata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/02/2023.