EN
Santa Cruz Ground-dove Alopecoenas sanctaecrucis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Alopecoenas sanctaecrucis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- D B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered D
2016 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2013 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,200 medium
Number of locations 2 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 218-1070 poor estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification:

The population size has previously been listed as 600-1,700 mature individuals. It is probably now much smaller as a result of the losses from Tinakula, and given that it was only a rough estimate, the population size may have been smaller than this in the first place. As the species is only very rarely recorded on Espiritu Santo, the population size there could be very small. Using the lowest population densities of former congeners (genus Gallicolumba) and assuming only a proportion of its range in Espiritu Santo is occupied would give a population size there in the range 210-1,055 mature individuals.

The recent survey on Tinakula found 15 individuals – 11 males and 4 females, although it is not certain whether these were all mature individuals (although Baptista et al. [2018] describe a different plumage colouration in juveniles, so it is possible that all counted individuals may be mature), and it is not known whether this is the total population on the island, or whether there may be some other individuals present still. The skew in the sex ratio of individuals found means that a lower population size should be used (per IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2017), but again it is unknown whether it is possible for all individuals in this very small population to successfully breed. Given the uncertainty, it is very tentatively suggested that the population size for Tinakula be assessed as 8-15 mature individuals. This would then give an overall global population in the range 218-1,070 mature individuals, equating roughly to 300-1,600 individuals in total.

Trend justification: While the eruption of the volcano on Tinakula in 2017 has caused a large one-off population reduction, any remaining population on Espiritu Santo is also likely to be undergoing a continuing decline due to the ongoing threats of introduced mammals and habitat loss.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Vanuatu Santo Mountain Chain
Solomon Islands Tinakula

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 60 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Merremia peltata Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Alopecoenas sanctaecrucis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/05/2022.