Sangihe Whistler Coracornis sanghirensis


Taxonomic note

Coracornis sanghirensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously listed as Colluricincla sanghirensis.


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Rozendaal, F. G.; Lambert, F. R. 1999. The taxomonic and conservation status of Pinarolestes sanghirensis Oustalet 1881. Forktail 15: 1-13.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii) B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2018 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(i,ii)
2010 Critically Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v); B2a+b(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,v); B2a+b(ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 medium estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.5 - - -

Population justification: The population size is likely to be extremely low (possibly fewer than 100 birds), given the tiny area of remaining habitat. An initial population estimate of 56-205 individuals (BirdLife Indonesia 2007) has not increased despite more recent surveys accessing a larger potential area. The most recent population estimate is between 92-255 individuals in total (Burung Indonesia 2009) and so is placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals. There is the potential for the population to be even lower than this, as these estimates are based on density estimates created from very few presence points (Burung Indonesia 2009).

Trend justification: This species is assumed to be declining owing to on-going forest loss within its restricted range. In 2009, reports suggested that numbers of this species were in serious decline owing to forest clearance (Sykes 2009). The species was not detected in 2015 at the most northwesterly and most southerly points where it was present in 2009, where habitat has been further degraded and from which the range is inferred to be continuing to decline (Martin 2018).   

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Gunung Sahendaruman
Indonesia Gunung Sahendaruman

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 600 - 1040 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 575 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Coracornis sanghirensis. Downloaded from on 14/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/08/2022.