Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Bourne, W. R. P.; Smith, A. J. M. 1974. Threats to Scottish Sandwich Terns. Biological Conservation 6(3): 222-224.

Burgess, N.D.; Hirons, J.M. 1992. Creation and management of articficial nesting sites for wetland birds. Journal of Environmental Management 34(4): 285-295.

Butcher, G. & Niven, D. 2007. Combining data from the Christmas Bird Count and the Breeding Bird Survey to determine the continental status and trends of North America Birds. National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fasola, M.; Canova, L. 1996. Conservation of gull and tern colony sites in north-eastern Italy, an internationally important bird area. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 59-67.

Garthe, S.; Flore, B.-O. 2007. Population trend over 100 years and conservation needs of breeding Sandwich Terns (Sterna sandvicensis) on the German North Sea coast. Journal of Ornithology 148(2): 215-227.

Gochfeld, M., Burger, J. and Garcia, E.F.J. 2018. Sandwich Tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, pp. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources
Euro Bird Portal

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Thalasseus sandvicensis. Downloaded from on 19/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/10/2019.