LC
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Thalasseus sandvicensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Sterna.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 192 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 98,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 164,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 325000-430000 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 490,000-640,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 325,000-430,000 mature individuals. Within this, the European population is estimated at 79,900-148,000 pairs, which equates to 160,000-295,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is fluctuating, although some populations are stable, others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, this species has undergone a small or non-significant increase over the last 40 years (based on Partners in Flight; A. Panjabi in litt. 2017). The European population is fluctuating (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Barbados N Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Brazil N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti V Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia V Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) V Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras U Extant
Hungary V Extant
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant
Peru N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) U Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) U Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Väike Väin strait
Estonia Abruka island
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Cross Lough (Killadoon)
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Carrowmore Lake
Ireland Roaninish
Ireland Inishkeeragh and Illancrone
Ireland Greer's Island (Massmount), Mulroy Bay
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Connemara Islands
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Argentina Punta Pozos
Argentina Punta Loma
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Kythira island
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Westplaat
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Maly Zhemchuzhny island
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Sotavento beach
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Berdyans'ka peninsula
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Budats'kyj lyman
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Chausey
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Baie de Goulven
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Basse vallée du Var
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Ile de Goulmedec
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Archipel des Glénan
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Havre de la Sienne
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Cap Gris-nez
France Bonne Anse
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Tarquinia saltpans
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Casaraccio pool, Stintino saltpans and Pilo pool
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Features of the coast between Cape Teulada and Cape Pula
Denmark Sprogø and Halsskov Rev
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Hirsholmene
Denmark Nordre Rønner
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Eastern German Bight
Ireland Connemara Bogs (south-east), including Roundstone Bog
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Belgium Voorhaven Zeebrugge and Baai van Heist
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Ghana Densu Delta Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site
Ghana Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site
Ghana Sakumo Lagoon Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site
Gambia Niumi National Park
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Morocco Dakhla area
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Cap Vert
Tunisia Salines de Thyna
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Estonia Pärnu bay and Kihnu strait
Italy Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello Lagoon e Lago di Burano
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Colombia Complejo de Humedales Costeros de la Guajira
Colombia Reserva de Biósfera Seaflower
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques
Venezuela Pedernales-Capure
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Väinameri
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Galata
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Etang du Bagnas
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Archipel de Molène
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Grand Turk Salinas and Shores
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Salt Cay Creek and Salinas
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Alqurm Wa Lehfeiyah (Khor Kalba)
Yemen Abdullah Gharib lagoons
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Bahamas Guana Cays
Italy Po Delta
Bahamas Cay Sal
Bahamas Great Inagua
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Puerto Rico (to USA) Culebra
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Virgin Islands (to USA) John Brewer's Bay
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Russia (European) Taman'
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river
Netherlands Haringvliet
Brazil Ilhas do Litoral Sul do Espírito Santo
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Brazil Ilhas Comprida e Cananéia
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Turkey Gediz Delta
French Guiana Amana
French Guiana Connétable
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Croatia Western Istrian Maritime Zone
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Croatia Kvarner Islands
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Circeo National Park and Pontine islands
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Netherlands Wadden Sea
USA Altamaha River Delta
USA Chandeleur Islands (Breton National Wildlife Refuge)
Puerto Rico (to USA) Acantilados del Noroeste
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Eastern part of German Bight (with Heligoland)
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Schlei
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Black Sea
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark Lillebælt
Jamaica Font Hill
Poland Puck Bay
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia Strunjan saltpans
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Brazil Ilhas do Litoral Sul do Espírito Santo - Marine
Brazil Ilhas Comprida e Cananéia - Marine
Venezuela Pedernales-Capure - Marine
French Guiana Amana - Marine
French Guiana Connétable - Marine
Puerto Rico (to USA) South Karst / Southwest - Marine
Bahamas Guana Cays - Marine
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands / San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands - Marine
USA Big Marco Pass Shoal
USA Bird Key Stono
USA Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge
USA Deveaux Bank
USA Sundown Island
USA Tomkins Island
Brazil Ilhas Itatiaia
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
USA Isles Dernieres - Timbalier Islands
USA Big Foot Island
USA Ferry Slip Island
USA Sand Bag Island
USA Jigsaw Islands
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Rømø
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Luitemaa
Argentina Punta León - Marina
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Senegal Delta du Saloum - marine
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break South
Morocco Canary current shelf-break North
Netherlands Outer Banks
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Delta Coast
Netherlands Texel, Utopia
Argentina Banco Nordeste
Argentina Punta Tafor e islas
Estonia Küdema bay
Brazil Mangue Seco
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Jazirah
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Thalasseus sandvicensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/06/2020.