LC
Sanderling Calidris alba



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 57 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 366,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.620,000-700,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 25,100-50,100 pairs, which equates to 50,100-100,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan, China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing, stable or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
American Samoa N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia V Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czech Republic N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia V Extant
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia N Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands V Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Swaziland V Extant
Sweden N Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina San Antonio Oeste
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Brazil Goiabal / Piratuba
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Blaine Lakes
Canada Chaplin Lake
Canada Chappice Lake
Canada Gooseberry Lake
Canada Manitou Lake Area (includes Reflex, Freshwater, Wells, Colette and Cipher Lakes)
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
Canada Metiskow and Sunken Lakes
Canada Miquelon Lake
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Sounding Lake
Chile Bio-bio Desembocadura
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta
Chile Desembocadura del Río Maipo
Chile Humedal-Marisma Rocuant Andalién
Chile Santuario de las Aves Bahía de Caulín
China (mainland) Eastern tidal flat of Nanhui
Colombia Ciénaga Grande, Isla de Salamanca and Sabana Grande RAMSAR biosphere reserve
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Costa Rica Pacuare, coastal wetlands and Migratory Bird Corridor
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
France Baie de Goulven
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Ghana Amansuri wetland
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Japan Anogawa and Shitomogawa estuaries
Japan Banzu and Futtsu tidal flat
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Kahokugata, Takamatsu coast
Japan Komaiko coast
Japan Kujukuri coast
Japan Tonegawa estuary, Hazaki coast
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mexico Bahía Santa María
Mexico Delta del Río Colorado
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Morocco Dakhla area
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Morocco Plage Blanche - Ras Takoumba
Mozambique Bazaruto Archipelago
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Walvis Bay
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Ferrolterra-Valdoviño coast
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
Uruguay Barra del Chuy - La Coronilla
USA Cape Hatteras National Seashore
USA Cape Lookout National Seashore

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Calidris alba. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/05/2019.