Saker Falcon Falco cherrug


Bagyura, J.; Szitta, T.; Haraszthy, L.; Viszló, L.; Fidlóczky, J.; Prommer, M. 2012. Results of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) conservation programme in Hungary between 1980-2010. Aquila 119: 105-110.

Bailey, T.; Launay, F.; Sullivan, T. 2001. Health issues of the international trade of falcons and bustards in the Middle East: the need for regional monitoring and regulation? In: Potapov, S.; Banzragch, S.; Fox, N.; Barton, N. (ed.), Saker Falcon in Mongolia: research and conservation (Proceedings of II International Conference on Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 1-4 July 2000), pp. 185-195. Ministry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar.

Barton, N. W. H. 2000. Trapping estimates for Saker and Peregrine Falcons used for falconry in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Raptor Research 34: 53-55.

Baumgart, W. 1991. Der Sakerfalke.

Baumgart, W. 1994. Saker Falco cherrug. In: Tucker, G.M.; Heath, M.F. (ed.), Birds in Europe: their conservation status, pp. 198-199. BirdLife International (Conservation Series 3), Cambridge, UK.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brochet, A.-L.; Van den Bossche, W.; Jones, V. R.; Arnardottir, H.; Damoc, D.; Demko, M.; Driessens, G.; Flensted, K.; Gerber, M.; Ghasabyan, M.; Gradinarov, D.; Hansen, J.; Horvath, M.; Karlonas, M.; Krogulec, J.; Kuzmenko, T.; Lachman, L.; Lehtiniemi, T.; Lorgé, P.; Lotberg, U.; Lusby, J.; Ottens, G.; Paquet, J.-Y.; Rukhaia, A.; Schmidt, M.; Shimmings, P.; Stipnieks, A.; Sultanov, E.; Vermouzek, Z.; Vintchevski, A.; Volke, V.; Willi, G.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2019. Illegal killing and taking of birds in Europe outside the Mediterranean: assessing the scope and scale of a complex issue. Bird Conservation International 29: 10-40.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds). 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dixon, A. 2007. Saker Falcon breeding population estimates. Part 1: Europe. Falco: 4-12.

Dixon, A. 2009. Saker Falcon breeding population estimates. Part 2: Asia. Falco: 4-10.

Dixon, A. 2012. Conservation of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) and the use of hybrids for falconry. Aquila 119: 9-19.

Dixon, A. 2015. International falcon project work undertaken in 2014 for the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi. Falco 45: 16-21.

Dixon, A., Batbayar, N., Bold, B., Davaasuren, B., Erdenechimeg, T., Galtbalt, B., Tsolmonjav, P, Ichinkhorloo, S., Gunga, A., Purevochir, G. and Rahman, Md. L. 2020. Variation in electrocution rate and demographic composition of Saker Falcons electrocuted at power lines in Mongolia. Journal of Raptor Research 54(2): 136-146.

Dixon, A., Batbayar, N., Purev-Ochir, G. & Fox, N. 2011. Developing a sustainable harvest of Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) for falconry in Mongolia. In: R.T. Watson, T.J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt & E. Potapov (ed.), Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a changing world, The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA.

Dixon, A., Bold, B., Tsolmonjav, P., Galtbalt,B. and Batbayar, N. 2018. Efficacy of a mitigation method to reduce raptor electrocution at an electricity distribution line in Mongolia. Conservation Evidence 15: 50-53.

Dixon, A., Li, X., Rahman, M.L., Batbayar, N. and Zhan, X. 2016. Characteristics of home range areas used by Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) wintering on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Bird Conservation International 27: 525-536.

Dixon, A., Ma, M. and Batbayar, N. 2015b. Importance of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau for the Endangered Saker Falcon Falco cherrug. Forktail 31: 37-42.

Dixon, A., Maming, R., Gunga, A., Purev-Ochir, G. and Batbayar, N. 2013. The problem of raptor electrocution in Asia: case studies from Mongolia and China. Bird Conservation International 23(4): 520-529.

Dixon, A., Ragyov, D. Izquierdo, D., Weeks, D., Rahman, M. L., Klisurov, I. 2019a. Movement and survival of captive-bred Saker Falcons Falco cherrug released by wild hacking: implications for reintroduction management. Acta Ornithologica 54: 157-170.

Dixon, A., Ragyov, D., Purev-Ochir, G., Rahman, Md. L., Batbayer, N., Bruford, M. W. and Zhan, X. 2016. Evidence for deleterious effects of harness mounted satellite transmitters on Saker Falcons Falco cherrug. Bird Study 63(1): 96-106.

Dixon, A., Rahman, M. L., Galtbalt, B., Bold, B., Davaasuren, B., Batbayar, N., Sugarsaikhan, B. 2019b. Mitigation techniques to reduce avian electrocution rates. Wildlife Society Bulletin 43: 476-483.

Dixon, A., Rahman, M.L, Galtbalt, B., Gunga, A., Sugarsaikhan, B. and Batbayar, N. 2017. Avian electrocution rates associated with density of active small mammal holes and power-pole mitigation: implications for the conservation of Threatened raptors in Mongolia. Journal of Nature Conservation 36: 14-19.

Eastham, C. P.; Quinn, J. L.; Fox, N. C. 2000. Saker Falco cherrug and Peregrine Falco peregrinus Falcons in Asia: determining migration routes and trapping pressure. In: Chancellor, R.D.; Meyburg, B.U. (ed.), Raptors at risk: world working group on birds of prey and owls, pp. 247-258. Hancock House, Surrey, British Columbia.

Eid, E., and Handal, R. 2018. Illegal hunting in Jordan: using social media to assess impacts on wildlife. Oryx 52: 730-735.

ERWDA. 2003. The status of the Saker Falcon (Falcon cherrug) and assessment of trade. Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London.

Fox, N. 2002. The conservation of the Saker Falcon (Falcon cherrug) and the role of CITES in UAE 2002. Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Gamauf, A.; Dosedel, R. 2012. Satellite telemetry of Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) in Austria: juvenile dispersal at the westernmost distribution limit of the species. Aquila 119: 65-78.

Haines, G. 2002. An assessment of the impact of trade on the Saker Falcon.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Karyakin I.V.; Levin A.S.; Nikolenko E.G.; Kovalenko A.V.; Moshkin A.V.; Barashkova A.N.; Smelansky I.E.; Vazhov S.V.; Bachtin R.F. 2012. Distribution and population status of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Russia and Kazakhstan based on results of surveys in 2005-2012. Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network. Available at: http://rrrcn.ru/en/archives/13822 .

Karyakin I.V.; Nikolenko E.G. 2011. Results of Monitoring of the Saker Falcon Population in the Altai-Sayan Region in 2011, Russia. Raptors Conservation 23: 152-167.

Kovács, A.; Williams, N. P.; Galbraith, C. A. 2014. Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Global Action Plan (SakerGAP), including a management and monitoring system, to conserve the species. Raptors MOU Technical Publication No. 2. CMS Technical Series No. 31. Coordinating Unit - CMS Raptors MOU, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Lazarova, I., Petrov, R., Andonova, Y., Klisurov, I. and Dixon, A. 2021. Re-introduction of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Bulgaria - preliminary results from the ongoing establishment phase by 2020. Biodiversity Data Journal 9: e63729.

Middle East Falcon Research Group. 2013. 2,000 Saker chicks reared in artificial nests. British Birds 106: 650.

Moshkin, A. V. 2010. Is there any scientific basis for decreasing the conservation status of the Saker Falcon? Raptors Conservation: 37-74.

Nittinger, F., Haring, E., Pinsker, W. and Gamauf, A. 2006. Are escaped hybrid falcons a threat to the Pannonian population of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug)? In: Gamauf, A. and Berg, H.-M. (eds), Greifvögel & Eulen in Österreich, Vienna Natural History Museum, Vienna.

Prommer, M.; Bagyura, J.; Chavko, J.; Uhrin, M. 2012. Migratory movements of Central and Eastern European Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) from juvenile dispersal to adulthood. Aquila 119: 111-134.

Rahman, Md., L.; Purev-Ochir, G.; Etheridge, M.; Batbayar. N.; Dixon, A. 2014. The potential use of artificial nests for the management and sustainable utilization of saker falcons (Falco cherrug). J. Ornithol. 155: 649-656.

Riddle, K. E.; Remple, J. D. 1994. Use of the Saker and other large falcons in Middle East falconry. In: Meyburg, B.U.; Chancellor, R.D. (ed.), Raptor conservation today, pp. 415-420. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Shobrak, M. Y. 2015. Trapping of Saker Falcon Falco cherrug and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus in Saudi Arabia: Implications for biodiversity conservation. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22: 491-502.

Snow, D.W. and Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Watson, M. and Clarke, R. 2000. Saker Falcon diet: the implications of habitat change . British Birds 93(3): 136-143.

Zhang, L., Hua, N. and Shan, S. 2008. Wildlife trade, consumption and conservation awareness in Southwest China. Biodivers Conserv 17: 1493-1516.

Further resources

CITES Significant Trade Review for Saker Falcon

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Jump to the case study for this species in Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species (Deniet et al. 2003)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Falco cherrug. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/saker-falcon-falco-cherrug on 05/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 05/03/2024.