Saker Falcon Falco cherrug


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcde+3cde+4bcde A2bcde+3cde+4bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered A2bcde+3cde+4bcde
2013 Endangered A2bcde+3cde+4bcde
2012 Endangered A2bcde+3cde+4bcde
2010 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3c,d; A4b,c,d
2008 Endangered A2b,c,d; A3c,d; A4b,c,d
2004 Endangered
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 43,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12200-29800 medium estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.12,200-29,800 mature individuals, based on national population estimates of breeding pairs (Dixon 2009, A. Dixon in litt. 2012, A. Levin in litt. 2012, BirdLife International unpubl. data, Kovács et al. 2014) that total c.6,100-14,900 pairs (median c.10,500).

Trend justification: Assuming a generation length of 6.4 years and that the species's decline had already begun (at least in some areas) prior to the 1990s (consumption in the Middle East was heavy by the mid-1980s), the overall population trend during the 19-year period 1993-2012 equates to a 47% decline (based on median estimates), with a minimum-maximum decline of 2-75%. Given the substantial degree of uncertainty over the estimates used, the population trend is best placed precautionarily in the band for a 50-79% decline over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania V Extant
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus V Extant
Bhutan V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burundi V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Chad U Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Possibly Extinct Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Lithuania V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Niger U Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Qatar U Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania V Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extinct Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Afghanistan Imam Sahib
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
China (mainland) Aksayqin Hu and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Aqqik Kol and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Area between Qinghai Hu and A'nyêmaqên
China (mainland) Ayark Kol and alpine grassland
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Baytik Shan
China (mainland) Bulungkol grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Changshagongma Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Haizishan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Jingyu Hu
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area
China (mainland) Ulugqat grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Xiaohegou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xining
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Czechia Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko
Georgia Iori Region
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Hungary Del-Hevesi-sik
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Gerecse
Hungary Heves Plain
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Vértes
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
India Inderkilla National Park
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Jordan Burqu'
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression
Kazakhstan Cherdoyak
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan North-western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains
Kazakhstan Ural River Valley
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Son-Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Kyrgyzstan Western Issyk Kul Lake
Moldova Purcari - Etulia
Mongolia Borzon Gobi
Mongolia Bulgan Tal
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Dayan Lake
Mongolia Eej Khad
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains
Mongolia Erkhel Lake
Mongolia Galba Gobi
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park
Mongolia Govi Gurvan Saikhan Mountain
Mongolia Ikh Gazriin Chuluu
Mongolia Jargalant Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Khokh Serkhiin Nuruu
Mongolia Khustain Nuruu National Park
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain
Mongolia Nomrog
Mongolia Oigon Lake
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake
Mongolia Sharga Lake
Mongolia Taigam Lake
Mongolia Tarialan
Mongolia Telmen Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Tsengel Khairkhan Mountain
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi
Romania Babadag wood
Romania Beştepe - Mahmudia
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Denis Tepe
Romania Dobrogei gorge
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Horga - Zorleni
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Kanskaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Kalachskaya Loop of Don River
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (European) Shugurovskoye plateau
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Serbia Titelski breg
Serbia Vlasina
Slovakia Kosice valley
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Morava
Slovakia Spacince - Nizna
Slovakia Vychodoslovenska plain
Syria Buhayrat al-Khatuniyah
Tajikistan Aktash massif
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Dangara massif
Tajikistan Dashtidjum
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Ishkashim
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge
Tajikistan Kulikalon Lakes
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Tajikistan Sarazm
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria)
Turkey Nemrut Mountain
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Delili - Garajabatyr
Turkmenistan Depmechay
Turkmenistan Dushakerekdag
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Turkmenistan Garabil
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Gorelde
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Koymat - Begarslan
Turkmenistan Koytendag
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan
Turkmenistan Soltansanjar - Duyeboyun
Turkmenistan Sumbar
Turkmenistan Tejen
Turkmenistan Tekejik - Biynekyr
Turkmenistan Uzboy
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Buzaubay
Uzbekistan Central section of the Kurama Mountain Range
Uzbekistan Darasay Gorge
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau
Uzbekistan Northern part of the Assake-Audan depression
Uzbekistan Nuratau Range
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Yemen Ta'izz wadis

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas marginal unknown
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Hybridisation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Falco cherrug. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/02/2020.