Justification of Red List Category
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be undergoing moderately rapid population declines owing to habitat loss, hunting and capture for the illegal cagebird trade.
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss, hunting and capture for the cage-bird trade.
Baillonius bailloni occurs in south-east Brazil, east Paraguay and north-east Argentina. In Brazil, it is most common in montane regions (up to 1,550 m) of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul, but also occurs in Pernambuco, and has been re-introduced into ex-Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro (Sick 1993, Parker et al. 1996). It is apparently less common in Argentina (Canevari et al. 1991) and Paraguay, where it is probably most numerous in south-east Paraguay (Lowen et al. 1996). A recent survey of 24 forest fragments in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul, only found the species in the largest fragment (Paranapiacaba, 1,400 km2). Surveys showed that the encounter rate at this site had declined by 47.5% between 1987-1991 and 1998 (Guix et al. 2000), but in Argentina it remains locally fairly common in Misiones (M. Pearman in litt. 2003, N. Rey in litt. 2004). It is less conspicuous than other toucans in the same region, and may be more easily overlooked.
It occurs in lowland and montane Atlantic forests, generally on slopes and beside streams, and in in Mantiqueira, Brazil it persists in second growth and forest remnants of c.3,000 ha (F. Olmos in litt. 2003).
There is an illegal cage-bird trade, hunting and significant habitat loss (Brooks et al. 1993, Chebez 1994). Montane forests have suffered less destruction than adjacent lowland forest in Brazil, but isolated forests in the north of its range have been reduced by the expansion of pasture and cultivation, and fires spreading from cultivated areas. Cage-bird trade and hunting are apparently minimal in Argentina (M. Pearman in litt. 2003, N. Rey in litt. 2004) but it is still hunted in Paraguay.
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES II. It occurs in a number of protected areas including Itatiaia and Foç do Iguaçu National Parks, Brazil; Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú and Estancia San Antonio, La Golondrina and Estancia Itabó Private Nature Reserves, Paraguay; and Iguazú National Park, Argentina.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Enforce law to prevent capture for the illegal cage-bird trade. Develop awareness-raising campaigns in areas where hunting is a particular threat. Effectively protect national parks where species occurs. Study its ecological requirements.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Mansur, E., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
Clay, R.P., Rey, N., Olmos, F., Pearman, M.
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pteroglossus bailloni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2017.