VU
Saffron-cowled Blackbird Xanthopsar flavus
BirdLife is reviewing the status of this species for the 2018 Red List.
Please click here to join the discussion



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cde+3cde;C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde;C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde;C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e; C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 844,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 195,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 medium estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The population is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. The population in Argentina was estimated in 2015 at c.500-600 individuals with a smaller number of mature individuals (A. Di Giacomo in litt. 2015).

Trend justification: A rapid and continuing decline is suspected, as a number of factors continue to threaten all sub-populations. Recent extensive fieldwork in Argentina revealed a sharp decline in numbers of all known populations, increased fragmentation/isolation of subpopulations, and confirmed the loss of all known breeding colonies in the IBAs. Extensive fieldwork during 2013-2014 in Argentina showed a rapid increase of known threats. As a result of the analysis of this new data, a reduction in the species’ population size was estimated at -80.4% between 1998-2012 (3 generations) in Argentina (A. Di Giacomo in litt. 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Azara
Argentina Ceibas
Argentina Cuenca del arroyo Garupá
Argentina Cuenca del río Aguapey
Argentina Estancia Mora Cué y alrededores
Argentina Estancia Puerto Valle
Argentina Extremo noreste de Corrientes
Argentina Nandubaysal-El Potrero
Argentina Pastizales de Ibicuy
Argentina Perdices
Argentina Rincón del Socorro-Iberá
Brazil Banhado dos Pachecos
Brazil Campos da Região de Bagé
Brazil Campos de Cima da Serra
Brazil Campos do Planalto das Araucárias
Brazil Região dos Aparados da Serra
Paraguay Arroyo Tymaca
Paraguay Arrozal Codas
Paraguay Estero Cabacuá
Paraguay Estero de San Mauricio
Paraguay Estero Kuruñai
Paraguay Estero San José
Paraguay Estero Ypyta
Paraguay Parque Nacional San Rafael
Paraguay San Miguel Potrero
Paraguay Tapyta
Uruguay Castillos Lagoon
Uruguay Eastern Wetlands
Uruguay Grassland and wetlands of Negro River down basin
Uruguay North "Quebradas" and grasslands
Uruguay Quebradas de Treinta y Tres
Uruguay Serranias del Este
Uruguay Sierra de los Ríos

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Xanthopsar flavus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2017.