EN
Saffron-cowled Blackbird Xanthopsar flavus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2acde+3cde+4acde A2acde+3cde+4acde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2018 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde; C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde;C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde;C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e; C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 828,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 medium estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The population is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. The population in Argentina was estimated in 2015 at c.500-600 individuals (A. Di Giacomo in litt. 2015). In Uruguay, the population is probably <1,000 individuals (Azpiroz et al. 2012). The population in Paraguay consists of 2,000-3,000 individuals, and in Brazil of < 10,000 individuals (Fraga and Sharpe 2019).

Trend justification: A rapid decline in the global population is suspected, as a number of factors continue to threaten all subpopulations. Recent extensive fieldwork in Argentina revealed a sharp decline in numbers of all known populations, increased fragmentation and isolation of subpopulations, and confirmed the loss of all known breeding colonies in the IBAs. Extensive fieldwork during 2013-2014 in Argentina showed a rapid increase in known threats. As a result of the analysis of this new data, a reduction in the species’s population size was estimated at 80.4% over three generations in Argentina (A. Di Giacomo in litt. 2015). In Uruguay, the species is listed as Vulnerable at the national level (A. Azpiroz in litt. 2017), and hence the population there is assumed to decline at 30-49% over three generations. The trend in Paraguay has not been quantified and is difficult to estimate; while the species colonizes new areas (R. M. Fraga in litt. 2018), it is feared that in the worst case the population may mirror the overall trend in Argentina and decline at up to 80.4% over three generations (R. P. Clay pers. comm.). In Brazil, the species is listed as Vulnerable under Criterion C at the national level, suggesting a rate of decline of 10-49% over three generations (MMA 2014). Taking the different population sizes in the respective countries into account, on the global scale the species would decline at a rate of roughly 30-79% over three generations. Considering the high number of threats that the species is facing, we can assume that the true rate of decline is closer to the higher end of the estimate.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Paraguay Parque Nacional San Rafael
Paraguay Arroyo Tymaca
Paraguay Arroyos y Esteros
Paraguay Arrozal Codas
Uruguay Castillos Lagoon
Argentina Cuenca del arroyo Garupá
Argentina Azara
Argentina Estancia Puerto Valle
Argentina Cuenca del río Aguapey
Argentina Rincón del Socorro-Iberá
Argentina Extremo noreste de Corrientes
Argentina Perdices
Argentina Nandubaysal-El Potrero
Argentina Pastizales de Ibicuy
Argentina Ceibas
Paraguay Tapyta
Paraguay Estero Kuruñai
Paraguay Isla Yacyretá
Paraguay Estero San José
Paraguay San Miguel Potrero
Paraguay Estero Ypyta
Paraguay Estero de San Mauricio
Argentina Estancia Mora Cué y alrededores
Uruguay Eastern Wetlands
Uruguay Quebradas de Treinta y Tres
Uruguay Serranias del Este
Uruguay José Ignacio Lagoon
Paraguay Estero Cabacuá
Brazil Campos do Planalto das Araucárias
Brazil Campos de Cima da Serra
Brazil Região dos Aparados da Serra
Brazil Campos da Região de Bagé
Brazil Banhado dos Pachecos
Uruguay Sierra de los Ríos
Uruguay North "Quebradas" and grasslands
Uruguay Grassland and wetlands of Negro River down basin

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Molothrus bonariensis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Small dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Xanthopsar flavus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2021.