VU
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus



References

Barnard, W. H.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Matsuoka, S. M. 2010. Prevalence of Hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112: 849-853.

Edmonds, S. T.; O'Driscoll, N. J.; Hillier, N. K.; Atwood, J. L.; Evers, D. C. 2012. Factors regulating the bioavailability of methylmercury to breeding rusty blackbirds in northeastern wetlands. Environmental Pollution 171: 148-154.

Greenberg, R.; Demarest, D. W.; Matsuoka, S. M.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Evers, D.; Hamel, P. B.; Luscier, J.; Powell, L. L.; Shaw, D.; Avery, M. L. 2011. Understanding declines in Rusty Blackbirds. In: J. V. Wells (ed.) (ed.), Boreal birds of North America: a hemispheric view of their conservation links and significance, pp. 107-126. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Greenberg, R.; Droege, S. 1999. On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document long-term population trends. Conserv. Biol. 13: 553-559.

Hamel, P. B.; De Stevens, D.; Leininger, T.; Wilson, R. 2009. Historical trends in Rusty Blackbird nonbreeding habitat in forested wetlands. In: T. Rich, C. Arizmendi, C. Thompson and D. Demarest (Eds.) (eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Partners in Flight Conference, pp. 341-353. McAllen, Texas.

Jaramillo, A.; Burke, P. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Christopher Helm, London.

Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. 2013. Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biol. Conserv. 158: 410-419.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Shaw, D.; Sinclair, P. H.; Johnson, J. A.; Corcoran, R. M.; Dau, N. C.; Meyers, P. M.; Rojek, N. A. 2010. Nesting ecology of the Rusty Blackbird in Alaska and Canada. Condor 112: 810-824.

McClure, C. J. W.; Rolek, B. W.; McDonald, K.; Hill, G. E. 2012. Climate change and the decline of a once common bird. Ecol. and Evol. 2: 370-378.

Powell, L. L.; Hodgman, T. P.; Fiske, I. J.; Glanz, W. E. 2014. Habitat occupancy of Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolinus) breeding in northern New England, USA. Condor 116: 122-133.

Scarl, J. 2013. Rusty Blackbirds 2012: building connections for a declining species. Vermont Center for Ecostudies.

Further resources

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/03/2019.