Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus


Barnard, W. H.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Matsuoka, S. M. 2010. Prevalence of Hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112: 849-853.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Buckley Luepold, S. H.; Hodgman, T. P.; McNulty, S. A.; Cohen, J.; Foss, C. R. 2015. Habitat selection, nest survival, and nest predators of Rusty Blackbirds in northern New England, USA. The Condor: Ornithological Applications 117(2015): 609-623.

Edmonds, S. T.; O'Driscoll, N. J.; Hillier, N. K.; Atwood, J. L.; Evers, D. C. 2012. Factors regulating the bioavailability of methylmercury to breeding rusty blackbirds in northeastern wetlands. Environmental Pollution 171: 148-154.

Greenberg, R.; Demarest, D. W.; Matsuoka, S. M.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Evers, D.; Hamel, P. B.; Luscier, J.; Powell, L. L.; Shaw, D.; Avery, M. L. 2011. Understanding declines in Rusty Blackbirds. In: J. V. Wells (ed.) (ed.), Boreal birds of North America: a hemispheric view of their conservation links and significance, pp. 107-126. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Greenberg, R.; Droege, S. 1999. On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document long-term population trends. Conserv. Biol. 13: 553-559.

Hamel, P. B.; De Stevens, D.; Leininger, T.; Wilson, R. 2009. Historical trends in Rusty Blackbird nonbreeding habitat in forested wetlands. In: T. Rich, C. Arizmendi, C. Thompson and D. Demarest (Eds.) (eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Partners in Flight Conference, pp. 341-353. McAllen, Texas.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Jaramillo, A.; Burke, P. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Christopher Helm, London.

Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. 2013. Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biol. Conserv. 158: 410-419.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Shaw, D.; Sinclair, P. H.; Johnson, J. A.; Corcoran, R. M.; Dau, N. C.; Meyers, P. M.; Rojek, N. A. 2010. Nesting ecology of the Rusty Blackbird in Alaska and Canada. Condor 112: 810-824.

McClure, C. J. W.; Rolek, B. W.; McDonald, K.; Hill, G. E. 2012. Climate change and the decline of a once common bird. Ecol. and Evol. 2: 370-378.

Meehan, T. D.; LeBaron, G. S.; Dale, K.; Michel, N. L.; Verutes, G. M.; Langham, G. M. 2018. Abundance trends of birds wintering in the USA and Canada, from Audubon Christmas Bird Counts, 1966-2017, version 2.1. New York, New York, USA

Newell Wohner, P. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Schweitzer, S. H.; Greenberg, R. S. 2018. Rusty blackbird patch use during winter in suburban landscapes. The Journal of Wildlife Management 82(8): 1736-1745.

Partners in Flight. 2019. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2019. Available at:

Powell, L. L.; Hodgman, T. P.; Fiske, I. J.; Glanz, W. E. 2014. Habitat occupancy of Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolinus) breeding in northern New England, USA. Condor 116: 122-133.

Scarl, J. 2013. Rusty Blackbirds 2012: building connections for a declining species. Vermont Center for Ecostudies.

Tracewski, L.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Di Marco, M.; Ficetola, G.F.; Rondinini, C.; Symes, A.; Wheatley, H.; Beresford, A.E. and Buchanan, G.M. 2016. Toward quantification of the impact of 21st-century deforestation on the extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates. Conservation Biology 30(5): 1070-1079.

Wells, J., Casey-Lefkowitz, S., Chavarria, G., Dyer, S. 2008. Danger in the Nursery: Impact of Tar Sands Oil Development in Canada’s Boreal Forest. Boreal Songbird Initiative, National Resources Defense Council, Pembina Institute.

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from on 20/01/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/01/2022.