Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus


Barnard, W. H.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Matsuoka, S. M. 2010. Prevalence of Hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112: 849-853.

Edmonds, S. T.; O'Driscoll, N. J.; Hillier, N. K.; Atwood, J. L.; Evers, D. C. 2012. Factors regulating the bioavailability of methylmercury to breeding rusty blackbirds in northeastern wetlands. Environmental Pollution 171: 148-154.

Greenberg, R.; Demarest, D. W.; Matsuoka, S. M.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Evers, D.; Hamel, P. B.; Luscier, J.; Powell, L. L.; Shaw, D.; Avery, M. L. 2011. Understanding declines in Rusty Blackbirds. In: J. V. Wells (ed.) (ed.), Boreal birds of North America: a hemispheric view of their conservation links and significance, pp. 107-126. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Greenberg, R.; Droege, S. 1999. On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document long-term population trends. Conserv. Biol. 13: 553-559.

Hamel, P. B.; De Stevens, D.; Leininger, T.; Wilson, R. 2009. Historical trends in Rusty Blackbird nonbreeding habitat in forested wetlands. In: T. Rich, C. Arizmendi, C. Thompson and D. Demarest (Eds.) (eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Partners in Flight Conference, pp. 341-353. McAllen, Texas.

Jaramillo, A.; Burke, P. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Christopher Helm, London.

Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. 2013. Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biol. Conserv. 158: 410-419.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Shaw, D.; Sinclair, P. H.; Johnson, J. A.; Corcoran, R. M.; Dau, N. C.; Meyers, P. M.; Rojek, N. A. 2010. Nesting ecology of the Rusty Blackbird in Alaska and Canada. Condor 112: 810-824.

McClure, C. J. W.; Rolek, B. W.; McDonald, K.; Hill, G. E. 2012. Climate change and the decline of a once common bird. Ecol. and Evol. 2: 370-378.

Powell, L. L.; Hodgman, T. P.; Fiske, I. J.; Glanz, W. E. 2014. Habitat occupancy of Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolinus) breeding in northern New England, USA. Condor 116: 122-133.

Scarl, J. 2013. Rusty Blackbirds 2012: building connections for a declining species. Vermont Center for Ecostudies.

Further resources

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from on 18/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/09/2020.