VU
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus



References

Barnard, W. H.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Matsuoka, S. M. 2010. Prevalence of Hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds. Condor 112: 849-853.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

Buckley Luepold, S. H.; Hodgman, T. P.; McNulty, S. A.; Cohen, J.; Foss, C. R. 2015. Habitat selection, nest survival, and nest predators of Rusty Blackbirds in northern New England, USA. The Condor: Ornithological Applications 117(2015): 609-623.

Edmonds, S. T.; O'Driscoll, N. J.; Hillier, N. K.; Atwood, J. L.; Evers, D. C. 2012. Factors regulating the bioavailability of methylmercury to breeding rusty blackbirds in northeastern wetlands. Environmental Pollution 171: 148-154.

Greenberg, R.; Demarest, D. W.; Matsuoka, S. M.; Mettke-Hofmann, C.; Evers, D.; Hamel, P. B.; Luscier, J.; Powell, L. L.; Shaw, D.; Avery, M. L. 2011. Understanding declines in Rusty Blackbirds. In: J. V. Wells (ed.) (ed.), Boreal birds of North America: a hemispheric view of their conservation links and significance, pp. 107-126. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Greenberg, R.; Droege, S. 1999. On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document long-term population trends. Conserv. Biol. 13: 553-559.

Hamel, P. B.; De Stevens, D.; Leininger, T.; Wilson, R. 2009. Historical trends in Rusty Blackbird nonbreeding habitat in forested wetlands. In: T. Rich, C. Arizmendi, C. Thompson and D. Demarest (Eds.) (eds), Proceedings of the 4th International Partners in Flight Conference, pp. 341-353. McAllen, Texas.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Jaramillo, A.; Burke, P. 1999. New World blackbirds: the icterids. Christopher Helm, London.

Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. 2013. Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biol. Conserv. 158: 410-419.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Shaw, D.; Sinclair, P. H.; Johnson, J. A.; Corcoran, R. M.; Dau, N. C.; Meyers, P. M.; Rojek, N. A. 2010. Nesting ecology of the Rusty Blackbird in Alaska and Canada. Condor 112: 810-824.

McClure, C. J. W.; Rolek, B. W.; McDonald, K.; Hill, G. E. 2012. Climate change and the decline of a once common bird. Ecol. and Evol. 2: 370-378.

Meehan, T. D.; LeBaron, G. S.; Dale, K.; Michel, N. L.; Verutes, G. M.; Langham, G. M. 2018. Abundance trends of birds wintering in the USA and Canada, from Audubon Christmas Bird Counts, 1966-2017, version 2.1. New York, New York, USA

Newell Wohner, P. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Schweitzer, S. H.; Greenberg, R. S. 2018. Rusty blackbird patch use during winter in suburban landscapes. The Journal of Wildlife Management 82(8): 1736-1745.

Partners in Flight. 2019. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2019. Available at: http://pif.birdconservancy.org/ACAD.

Powell, L. L.; Hodgman, T. P.; Fiske, I. J.; Glanz, W. E. 2014. Habitat occupancy of Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolinus) breeding in northern New England, USA. Condor 116: 122-133.

Scarl, J. 2013. Rusty Blackbirds 2012: building connections for a declining species. Vermont Center for Ecostudies.

Tracewski, L.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Di Marco, M.; Ficetola, G.F.; Rondinini, C.; Symes, A.; Wheatley, H.; Beresford, A.E. and Buchanan, G.M. 2016. Toward quantification of the impact of 21st-century deforestation on the extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates. Conservation Biology 30(5): 1070-1079.

Wells, J., Casey-Lefkowitz, S., Chavarria, G., Dyer, S. 2008. Danger in the Nursery: Impact of Tar Sands Oil Development in Canada’s Boreal Forest. Boreal Songbird Initiative, National Resources Defense Council, Pembina Institute.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/09/2021.