VU
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cde+3cde+4cde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2016 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2012 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,790,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.2 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number anywhere between 0.2-2 million individuals (R. Greenberg in litt. 2006).

Trend justification: Two sources provide quantitative estimates of decline for the species: Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Counts (CBC). Sauer et al. (2005) provide an estimate for annual declines for a 39 year period of 12.5% per year, derived from BBS data. The estimated trend for the period 1996-2005 is a 1.8% decline per year, equating to a 16.6% decline over ten years. The CBC returns an estimated global decline for this period of 5.1% per year (CI = 2.4- 6.7%) which corresponds to a decline of 40.8% over the past decade. Interpreting the two estimates, the population is believed to have declined by >30% over the past ten years (R. Greenberg in litt. 2006). Butcher and Niven (2007) also combined data from the two sources, estimating a large and statistically significant population decrease over the last 40 years in North America (83.8% decline over 40 years, equating to a 36.6% decline per decade).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Mexico V Extant
Russia V Extant
Russia (Asian) V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Cape Island and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area
USA Cowles Bog - Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
USA Donnelly Wildlife Management Area
USA Great Dismal Swamp (VA)
USA Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge
USA Kankakee River Fish and Wildlife Area
USA Lake Conestee Nature Park
USA Lower C & O Canal
USA Lower Rappahannock River
USA Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers
USA Monroe Lake
USA Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
USA Phinizy Swamp
USA Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge
USA Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge
USA Willow Slough Fish and Wildlife Area

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Air-borne pollutants - Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/06/2019.