VU
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cde+3cde+4cde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2018 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2016 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2012 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,790,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number anywhere between 0.2-2 million individuals (R. Greenberg in litt. 2006, Scarl 2013), although a lack of accurate population surveys render this estimate highly uncertain. Further research to accurately quantify this species's population size is a pressing requirement.

Trend justification: The Christmas Bird Count currently estimates population declines of ~4.61% per year for E. carolinus throughout Canada, where the majority of this species's breeding range lies; equable to a ~37.6% decline over the stipulated ten year period (Meehan et al. 2018). Declines in the USA are however, estimated to be lower, just ~1.46% per year, or 13.7% over ten years. This is reflected in the Partners in Flight (2019) estimated rate of annual decline of ~2.50%, or 22.4% across the decade. Accurate quantitative estimates of this species's population size and trends are difficult to come by, therefore by interpreting the above estimates, it is tentatively assumed that E. carolinus is declining at a rate in excess of >30% per decade due to the high rates of past decline and rapid reductions currently ongoing throughout its breeding range. More accurate quantification of such trends should constitute an urgent research priority however.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Mexico V Extant
Russia V Extant
Russia (Asian) V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Donnelly Wildlife Management Area
USA Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge
USA Great Dismal Swamp (VA)
USA Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge
USA Willow Slough Fish and Wildlife Area
USA Cowles Bog - Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
USA Lower Rappahannock River
USA Mattaponi and Pamunkey Rivers
USA Kankakee River Fish and Wildlife Area
USA Monroe Lake
USA Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge
USA Phinizy Swamp
USA Lower C & O Canal
USA Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
USA Cape Island and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area
USA Lake Conestee Nature Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas marginal non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Air-borne pollutants - Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Euphagus carolinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2021.