Rüppell's Warbler Curruca ruppeli


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing, however it is not thought to be declining at a rate to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
In Europe the population is estimated to be 103,000-510,000 pairs, which equates to 206,000-1,020,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 65% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 315,000-1,570,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification
In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 12 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


This species breeds in dry and warm rocky areas and hillsides covered with scrub and maquis. It is found in a broad spectrum of dry Mediterranean habitats, from forested areas with sufficient undergrowth to maquis with sparse tree cover, such as open bushy woods of oak (Quercus) and cypress (Cupressus) and grassy and rocky terrain with rather dense to sparse scrub cover. In Greece, egg-laying is from mid-April to mid-May and clutches are usually four or five eggs (Aymí and Gargallo 2006). The nest is a strong cup of grass leaves and stems and some vegetable down, lined with finer materials and sited in thick, often thorny scrub, 45–75 cm above ground (Snow and Perrins 1998). It is thought to feed on adult and larval insects, although it is likely other arthropods are also taken and it also consumes berries outside the breeding season. The species is a long distance migrant (Aymí and Gargallo 2015).


This species may be threatened by the future effects of climate change (Doswald et al. 2009).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species within Europe.


Text account compilers
Ashpole, J, Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Curruca ruppeli. Downloaded from on 06/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 06/12/2022.