Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Partners in Flight estimate the total population to number 0.5-4.99 million individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008). The subspecies handleyi was formerly treated as specifically distinct and threatened, however more recent surveys have found the species to be abundant, albeit within an extremely small range (S. Olson per G. Graves in litt. 1996).
The subspecies handleyi was formerly treated as specifically distinct and threatened. It is endemic to Isla Escudo de Veraguas in the Caribbean, off the coast of Bocas del Toro, Panama (S. Olson per G. Graves in litt. 1996). It was glimpsed occasionally in March 1958, and five specimens were collected during five days in March 1962 (S. Olson per G. Graves in litt. 1996).
The subspecies handleyi has been observed feeding on the flowers of low bushes in coastal areas (Wetmore 1968).
The small size of Isla Escudo de Veraguas makes the subspecies handleyi inherently susceptible to extinction. There are many potential threats, including hurricanes, fire, establishment of non-native species and development for tourism.
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under CITES Appendix II.
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J., Butchart, S.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Amazilia tzacatl. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019.