Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2018 Near Threatened A2ac+3c+4ac
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 4 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 2,780,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 3,600,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 22000000 mature individuals medium estimated 2019
Population trend decreasing - estimated 2014-2024
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-29% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-29% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-29% - - -
Generation length 2.44 years - - -

Population justification: Partners in Flight (2019) estimate the population of mature individuals to total ~22,000,000.

Trend justification:

Partners in Flight (2019) currently estimate a ~2.1% decline in mature individuals each year, which equates to a ~19% reduction over a ten year period. Rates of decline are estimated to have decreased since 2006 and similar rates of decline are supported by Sauer et al. (2017). Although the North American Breeding Bird Survey estimated annual declines to be ~1.45% between 2010-2015, which corresponds to a ~14% across the stipulated ten year period, they conclude that estimates population reductions may reach up to ~32% in a worst-case scenario (Sauer et al. 2017). The rate of population decline is therefore tentatively placed in the band 10-29% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Bahamas extant vagrant
Canada extant native yes
Mexico extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant vagrant yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant vagrant
USA extant native yes yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Sierra de Santa Rosa
Mexico Bosque La Primavera
Mexico Reserva Ecológica Sierra de San Juan
Mexico Sierra de Manantlán
Mexico Santiaguillo
Mexico Río Presidio - Pueblo Nuevo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens marginal breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Selasphorus rufus. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/rufous-hummingbird-selasphorus-rufus on 09/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 09/12/2023.