Rufous Hummingbird Selasphorus rufus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2ac+3c+4ac
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 3.5 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,780,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 19000000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification: Rosenberg et al. (2016) estimate the population size to be 19,000,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification:

Rosenberg et al. (2016) estimated reduction of 60% between 1970 and 2014, roughly equating to a reduction of 25.4% over three generations (14.1 years). Sauer et al. (2017) also suggest that the reduction is not only historical. Conversely, Christmas Bird Count data shows an annual increase between 1966 and 2017 (T. Meehan in litt. 2018), but only a very small proportion of its non-breeding range is within the United States. 

Looking at short-term trends, Sauer et al. (2017) present year by year records, and so we can extrapolate trends for any three generation period. Extrapolating trends between 2004 and 2015 to 2018 in order to estimate the population trend over the past three generations shows the population has been, in general, decreasing with a significant, estimated annual decrease of 2.23% (1.21 to 3.40%) (Sauer et al. 2017). This equates to a reduction of 27.2% (15.8-38.6%) over three generations. The Sauer et al. data appears to show that the rate of decline slows after 2006, however, Partners in Flight also gives the species a future half-life of 34 years, which would equate to a decrease of 25.0% over three generations (Rosenberg et al. 2016). Therefore, it is tentatively assumed that declines will continue into the future at the current rate of 20-29% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) V Extant
USA N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Mexico Sierra de Atoyac y Bosques de Niebla de la Costa Grande

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens marginal breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Selasphorus rufus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/01/2019.