VU
Rufous-headed Chachalaca Ortalis erythroptera



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 632.0 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 134,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 medium estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: A new population has been discovered in eastern Esmeraldas, Ecuador, which, judging by the area of potentially available habitat, may hold one of the world's largest subpopulations. However, population densities are usually low, and the population there is currently estimated at only 500-1,000 birds (O. Jahn and P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007). Its historical range to the south is now extremely fragmented, with viable populations restricted to only a few locations and probably maintaining less than 1,000 mature individuals. The population is thought to be best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, based on density estimates and the species's Extent of Occurrence. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat destruction and fragmentation.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Colombia N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Alamor-Celica
Ecuador Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco
Ecuador Bosque Protector Chongón-Colonche
Ecuador Bosque Protector Jatumpamba-Jorupe
Ecuador Bosque Protector Molleturo Mullopungo
Ecuador Bosque Protector Puyango
Ecuador Cañón del río Catamayo
Ecuador Catacocha
Ecuador Cayapas-Santiago-Wimbí
Ecuador Cazaderos-Mangaurquillo
Ecuador Centro Científico Río Palenque
Ecuador Cerro Mutiles
Ecuador Estación Científica Pedro Franco Dávila
Ecuador Hacienda Camarones
Ecuador La Tagua
Ecuador Mache Chindul Ecological Reserve and surrouding areas (Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul IBA)
Ecuador Mataje-Cayapas-Santiago
Ecuador Parque Nacional Machalilla y alrededores
Ecuador Reserva Biológica Tito Santos
Ecuador Reserva Buenaventura
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Arenillas
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Comunal Loma Alta
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Manglares-Churute
Ecuador Reserva Natural Tumbesia-La Ceiba-Zapotillo
Ecuador Tambo Negro
Ecuador Tonchigüe-Mompiche
Ecuador Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé
Peru Coto de Caza El Angolo
Peru Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape
Peru Suyo-La Tina

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1850 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Ortalis erythroptera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/08/2019.