Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(i) A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i); D A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd;B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,000 medium
Number of locations 2-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor suspected 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population size is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals, based on the highly restricted distribution and lack of recent records, including at market surveys throughout Java (Collar et al. 2012, Eaton et al. 2015, S. Chng in litt. 2016, J. Eaton in litt. 2016, A. Owen in litt. 2016, A. Tritto in litt. 2016). Numbers observed in the market are now very low indeed, and some may be from very limited captive breeding (or stolen from captive breeding efforts): three were recorded in a survey of Jakarta's markets in 2014 (Chng et al. 2015), one was observed for sale in Surabaya in June 2015 (Chng and Eaton 2016) and four have been reported in Bandung in 2016, on two dates (A. Tritto in litt. 2016).

Demand for the species appears to remain high: the Cikanaga Breeding Center received information of the presence of three individuals in the market at Bandung two had gone by the time they arrived (A. Tritto in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: This species has apparently disappeared throughout much of its range in recent years, primarily as a result of heavy trapping for the cage-bird trade. Although data are lacking on the precise magnitude of the population decline, the species is suspected to have undergone a very rapid decline, given the weight of the perceived decrease in abundance and intense trapping pressure.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Gunung Manglayang
Indonesia Gunung Ceremai
Indonesia Gunung Gede - Pangrango
Indonesia Gunung Halimun
Indonesia Gunung Masigit-Kareumbi
Indonesia Gunung Papandayan-Kamojang
Indonesia Gunung Slamet
Indonesia Gunung Burangrang-Tangkuban Perahu
Indonesia Gunung Salak
Indonesia Telaga Warna-Cibulao
Indonesia Gunung Karang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1000 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Garrulax rufifrons. Downloaded from on 15/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 15/10/2021.