Rufous-bellied Eagle Lophotriorchis kienerii


Justification of Red List Category
The species is declining due to ongoing deforestation throughout its range. The rate of forest loss has been estimated at 29% over three generations (54 years). Consequently, the species is listed as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The population size has not been estimated, but the species is widespread and described as common in India (Western Ghats), moderately common in Sulawesi, uncommon in the Philippines, rare in Java and Burma and scarce in Nepal (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Trend justification
The population is inferred to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline due to forest loss and fragmentation (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, Tracewski et al. 2016).

Distribution and population

The species's distribution ranges from India and Sri Lanka in the west, Nepal and southern China in the north, over Myanmar and the Malay Peninsula to insular Indonesia and the Philippines.


The species inhabits mature evergreen and moist deciduous forests and does not tolerate severe forest degradation (del Hoyo et al. 1994). However, the record of a nest in secondary, selectively logged forest in Sumatra suggests that the species may be fairly tolerant of forest disturbance and degradation (Iqbal et al. 2011). The species feeds on birds (pheasants, junglefowl, pigeons) and small mammals (squirrels) (del Hoyo et al. 1994).


The species is threatened by high levels of deforestation throughout its range.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Listed on CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Investigate the impact of forest loss, fragmentation and degradation on the population size and distribution.


c.46-60 cm; wingspan 105-140 cm. Small, slightly crested eagle with black upperparts; breast and throat white; underparts and underwing-coverts bright rufous with dark streaks. Juvenile with completely white underparts and underwing-coverts. Similar spp. Wing shape and underwing pattern in flight similar to buzzards. Voice Generally silent outside of the breeding season; variable-lengths series piercing keeee during flight and contact between pair-members, followed by a piping kee...kee...kee...kipkipe...trree...


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Hermes, C., Westrip, J., Harding, M., Ekstrom, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Lophotriorchis kienerii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/03/2023.