Ruff Calidris pugnax


Taxonomic note
Calidris pugnax (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Philomachus.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 161,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 265,000-1,650,000 calling or lekking males, which equates to 531,000-3,310,000 mature individuals or 797,000-4,970,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 50% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,594,000-9,940,000 individuals. The global population was previously estimated to number 2,000,000-2,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006). The upper estimate of the European population size is considerably larger than the Wetlands International (2006) global estimate. The extrapolated European population size is therefore used here and the population placed in the band 1,500,000-9,999,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). There is evidence to suggest that the European population (265,000-1,650,000 calling or lekking males, occupying c. 50% of the global breeding range) has declined by less than 25% in 15.9 years (three generations). This may reflect shifts in breeding populations, populations in Asia are not thought to be declining and wintering populations in Africa appear to be increasing.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Armenia N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Botswana N Extant
Brazil V Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia V Extant
Comoros V Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala V Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos V Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant
Madagascar V Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius V Extant
Mexico V Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Peru V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Solomon Islands V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
St Vincent and the Grenadines V Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) V Extant
USA V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) V Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Lithuania Kretuonas Landscape Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Estonia Haapsalu-Noarootsi bays
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Comana
Romania Lake Fundata
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Tataru
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Belgium De Maatjes, Wuustwezel Heide en Groot Schietveld
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium Krekengebied
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Moldova Congaz – Taraclia Lakes
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Lake Östen
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden River Helge
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden Lake Ralången – Lake Hyllingen
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Lake Hjälstaviken
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Fjord of Båta
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Lower Bug river valley
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Workumerwaard
Netherlands Wormer- en Jisperveld & Kalverpolder
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland, Oostzanerveld & Twiske
Netherlands Oostzanerveld
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Koijärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Faustovo flood-plains of Moscow river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Surski reservoir
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans
Spain Villafáfila
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Brenne centrale
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etang du Bagnas
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Marais de Brière
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Etang de Biguglia
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Etang de Capestang
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Cap Gris-nez
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Basse vallée du Var
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Bonne Anse
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Ile de la Platière
United Kingdom Abberton Reservoir
United Kingdom Arun Valley
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch Leven
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Martin Mere
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Nene Washes
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Ouse Washes
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rutland Water
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors
United Kingdom South-west London Waterbodies
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Frome Flood-plain
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings
United Kingdom Breydon Water
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Palude e Tombolo di Bolgheri
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Torrile LIPU reserve
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Italy Fucecchio marsh
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Pools of Florence plain
Italy Sentina
Poland Slowinska Site
Czechia Dehtár pond
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Ribe Holme and meadows at Kongeåen
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Ballum og Husum Enge, Kamper strandenge
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Gaulosen
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Federseeried
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)
Germany Milde lowlands/Altmark
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Plothen ponds
Germany Helme reservoir Berga-Kelbra
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Ammersee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Leine valley near Salzderhelden
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Aper Tief
Germany Old Picardie
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Dümmer
Germany Hunte lowlands near Oldenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Salziger See and Salza valley
Germany Ober-Moos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Silzenwiesen and Bruch near Stettfeld
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Cameroon Logone flood-plain
Ethiopia Abijatta - Shalla Lakes National Park
Mali Lac Faguibine
Mali Lac Horo
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Timisobo - Képagou
Mauritania Gabou
Mauritania Tâmourt en Na'âj
Nigeria Hadejia-Nguru wetlands
Sudan Lake Abiad
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the Trois Marigots)
Senegal River Sénégal (Ntiagar to Richard-Toll)
Somalia Far Waamo
Chad Lake Chad
Tanzania Lake Manyara
Zambia Barotse Floodplains
Zambia Kafue Flats
Zambia Bangweulu Swamps
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Batanakovskiye swamps
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
India Bardha Dam
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Agusalu
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Muraka
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Pakri
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Sutu bay
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Russia (Central Asian) Siverga lake
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river near Lebedevka and Bugrovoye villages
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tobol river between mouths of the Uya and Ubagan rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Latvia Lielupe flood-plain meadows
Latvia Liepaja lake
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Latvia Tasu lake
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Seda marsh
Latvia Pape
Latvia Augstroze
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Babite lake
Latvia Kemeri national park
Latvia Randu meadows
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Rade de Lorient
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Belozerskaya flood-plain of river Tobol
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (Central Asian) Mandesarskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Jordan Azraq
Lithuania Birveta Fish-farm including segments of Dysna River and Birveta River valleys
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Saudi Arabia King Faisal Airbase, Tabuk
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Yemen Aden
Poland Middle Bug river valley
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Sweden Muddus
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Sweden Bog of Komosse
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Pasleka river valley
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Poland Insko Site
Italy Ticino river
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 9
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Witnica-Debno Site
Russia (European) Zhuravlinaya
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Rogalin Site
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Kozienicka Forest
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Labunka River Valley
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
South Sudan Lake Abiad (South Sudan)
Netherlands Lake Oudegaasterbrekken
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Russia (European) Kozinka lake and Baranikovski segment of Manych
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Slovakia Senné
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Alajoki
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Jordan Khirbat al Samra (sewage works)
Germany Hattstedt marshes
Germany Gotteskoogsee
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer
Germany Kudensee
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Dollart
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Leine valley Koldingen-Ruthe
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Elzniederung between Kenzingen and Rust
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Wümme lowlands and St. Jürgensland
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Geeste lowlands near Bramel
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Dosse-Jäglitz lowlands
Germany Lappen near Walldürn
Germany Donauried
Germany Baar
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Nuthe - Nieplitz lowlands
Germany Kühren Teich and Lanker See
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Alzette
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Buhuşu reservoir - Bacău - Tătărăşti
Romania Lacurile Fălticeni
Romania Maglavit
Romania Suhaia
Luxembourg Haff Réimech
Luxembourg Aspelt - Lannebur, am Kessel
Luxembourg Valley of the Ernze Blanche
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Ho Bugt meadows
Denmark Saltbæk Vig
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Skælskør Nor, Skælskør Fjord and Borreby Mose
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Stadil Fjord and Veststadil Fjord
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Liwiec river valley
Kazakhstan Vicinity of Korgalzhyn village
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Odra riverine forests
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Poland Polesie
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Poland Karas Lake
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Slovenia Črete
Slovenia River Drava
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Sudan Lake Abiad (Sudan)
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
Moldova Royal Forest
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Tenna & Herøy
Norway Iešjávri
Norway Øvre Forra
Kazakhstan Sankebay Lakes
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Denmark Skjern Å
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Irbe strait
Netherlands Oudegaasterbrekken, Fluessen e.o.
Netherlands Sneekermeergebied
Netherlands Witte en Zwarte Brekken
Netherlands Zuidlaardermeergebied
Netherlands Alkmaardermeer
Netherlands Eempolders
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Sweden Sjaunja
Tanzania Yaida Chini
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Sweden Lomma Bight

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land major non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Calidris pugnax. Downloaded from on 24/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/11/2020.