Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 177,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 399,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 300000-500000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.460,000-730,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 300,000-500,000 mature individuals. National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan, China; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 35,900-77,100 pairs, which equates to 71,800-154,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the population has been undergoing a slow or non-significant decline over the last four decades (based on Partners in Flight; A. Panjabi in litt. 2017), while in Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% over three generations (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
American Samoa N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Cook Islands N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia N Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nauru N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay V Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Samoa N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) N Extant
Tonga N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Heden
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Iceland Löngufjörur
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Skerjafjördur
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Melrakkaslétta
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Skerries Islands
Ireland Boyne estuary
Ireland Mid Clare Coast including Mutton and Mattle Islands
Ireland Ballycotton, Ballynamona and Shanagarry
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Ottenby
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Engelsmanplaat
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Majona coast
Spain Janubio saltpans
Spain Coast between Corralejo and Tostón
Spain El Médano coast
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral
Ukraine Syvash Bay
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Bonne Anse
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Eoligarry, Barra
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom North Wales Coast
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
United Kingdom South Down Coast
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Greenland (to Denmark) Albrecht Sletten (Storsletten), Wollaston Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Morocco Région Jorf Lasfar
Morocco Dakhla area
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Namibia 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Africa Dassen Island
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Japan Awase tidal flat
Japan Yaeyama islands
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Ikawazu tidal flat
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Dongjin estuary
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Estonia Vaindloo island
Jamaica Yallahs
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Basse vallée du Var
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Pointe de Grave
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Bahamas Grog Pond
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Churchill and Vicinity
Canada Nelson River Estuary and Marsh Point
Canada Tracadie Bay and Sandspit
Canada Mistaken Point
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
Canada Greater Rondeau Area
Canada Longridge Point and Associated Coastline
Canada Big Piskwanish Point
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Marais de Pointe-au-Père
Canada Barre de Portneuf
Canada Île Rouge
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Battures aux Loups Marins
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Lake Lenore
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas Gilliam Bay
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats
Bahamas Salt Cay
Bahamas Booby Island
Belize Rio Bravo CMA Gallon Jug Estate
Belize Belize Off-shore and Barrier Islands
Belize Northeastern Belize
Belize Crooked Tree and associated wetlands
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Aruba (to Netherlands) Tierra del Sol Salina
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Bahamas Mangrove Cay
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
St Lucia Point Sables
St Lucia Iyanola and Grande Anses, Esperance and Fond D'ors
Anguilla (to UK) Scrub Island
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West)
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Bahamas Red Bays
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Laguna de Mecoacán
Mexico Laguna de Términos
Mexico Ría Lagartos
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Ireland Ballymacoda
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Netherlands Delta Coast
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Rogerstown estuary
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Courtmacsherry, Broadstrand and Dunworley Complex
Ireland Donegal Bay
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom The Wash
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Bahamas Joulter Cays
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
USA Delaware Coastal Zone
USA Delaware Bayshore Region
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Slettnes
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Estonia Väinameri
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Estonia Lahemaa
Brazil Mangue Seco
Brazil Reentrâncias Maranhenses / Paraenses
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel
Brazil Baixada Maranhense
Brazil Delta do Parnaíba
Philippines Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Ecuador Zona intermareal del Sur del Golfo de Guayaquil
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
China (mainland) Dongling coast
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Arenaria interpres. Downloaded from on 05/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/03/2021.