LC
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 177,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 399,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 300000-500000 mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 7.3 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.460,000-730,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 300,000-500,000 mature individuals. National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan, China; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 35,900-77,100 pairs, which equates to 71,800-154,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the population has been undergoing a slow or non-significant decline over the last four decades (based on Partners in Flight; A. Panjabi in litt. 2017), while in Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% over three generations (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native
Algeria extant native
American Samoa extant native
Angola extant native
Anguilla (to UK) extant native
Antigua and Barbuda extant native
Argentina extant native
Armenia extant native
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant native
Australia extant native
Austria extant native
Azerbaijan extant native yes yes
Bahamas extant native
Bahrain extant native yes yes
Bangladesh extant native
Barbados extant native
Belarus extant vagrant
Belgium extant native yes
Belize extant native yes
Benin extant native
Bermuda (to UK) extant native
Bolivia extant native
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant native yes
Botswana extant native
Brazil extant native
British Indian Ocean Territory extant native
Brunei extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Burkina Faso extant native
Burundi extant native
Cambodia extant native
Cameroon extant native
Canada extant native yes yes
Cape Verde extant native
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native
Chad extant native
Chile extant native
China (mainland) extant native
Christmas Island (to Australia) extant native
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) extant native
Colombia extant native
Comoros extant native
Congo extant native
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native
Cook Islands extant native
Costa Rica extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native
Croatia extant native
Cuba extant native
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native
Denmark extant native yes yes
Djibouti extant native
Dominica extant native
Dominican Republic extant native
Ecuador extant native
Egypt extant native
El Salvador extant native
Equatorial Guinea extant native
Eritrea extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Eswatini extant vagrant
Ethiopia extant native
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) extant native
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Fiji extant native yes yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
French Guiana extant native
French Polynesia extant native
French Southern Territories extant native
Gabon extant native
Gambia extant native
Georgia extant native
Germany extant native yes yes
Ghana extant native
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Grenada extant native
Guadeloupe (to France) extant native yes
Guam (to USA) extant native yes
Guatemala extant native
Guinea extant native
Guinea-Bissau extant native
Guyana extant native
Haiti extant native
Honduras extant native
Hong Kong (China) extant native
Hungary extant native
Iceland extant native yes yes
India extant native
Indonesia extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes
Jamaica extant native yes
Japan extant native
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native
Kenya extant native
Kiribati extant native
Kuwait extant native yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Lesotho extant vagrant
Liberia extant native
Libya extant native
Liechtenstein extant vagrant
Lithuania extant native
Luxembourg extant vagrant
Madagascar extant native
Malawi extant native
Malaysia extant native
Maldives extant native
Mali extant native
Malta extant native
Marshall Islands extant native yes
Martinique (to France) extant native
Mauritania extant native
Mauritius extant native
Mayotte (to France) extant native
Mexico extant native
Micronesia, Federated States of extant native yes
Mongolia extant native
Montenegro extant native
Montserrat (to UK) extant native
Morocco extant native
Mozambique extant native
Myanmar extant native
Namibia extant native
Nauru extant native
Nepal extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
New Caledonia (to France) extant native
New Zealand extant native
Nicaragua extant native
Niger extant native
Nigeria extant native
Niue (to New Zealand) extant native
Norfolk Island (to Australia) extant native
North Korea extant native
North Macedonia extant native yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native
Palau extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes yes
Panama extant native
Papua New Guinea extant native
Paraguay extant vagrant
Peru extant native
Philippines extant native
Poland extant native
Portugal extant native yes yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant native
Qatar extant native yes yes
Réunion (to France) extant native
Romania extant native
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Rwanda extant vagrant
Samoa extant native
São Tomé e Príncipe extant native
Saudi Arabia extant native yes yes
Senegal extant native
Serbia extant native
Seychelles extant native
Sierra Leone extant native
Singapore extant native
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant native yes
Slovakia extant native
Slovenia extant vagrant
Solomon Islands extant native
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands extant native
South Korea extant native
South Sudan extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant native
St Barthelemy (to France) extant native
St Helena (to UK) extant native
St Kitts and Nevis extant native
St Lucia extant native
St Martin (to France) extant native yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines extant native
Sudan extant native
Suriname extant native
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native
Taiwan, China extant native
Tajikistan extant native
Tanzania extant native
Thailand extant native
Timor-Leste extant native yes yes
Togo extant native
Tokelau (to New Zealand) extant native
Tonga extant native
Trinidad and Tobago extant native
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant native
Tuvalu extant native
Uganda extant native
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant native yes yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Uruguay extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native
Vanuatu extant native
Venezuela extant native
Vietnam extant native
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Western Sahara extant native
Yemen extant native yes yes
Zambia extant native
Zimbabwe extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Skerjafjordur
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iceland Melrakkasletta
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Ukraine Syvash Bay
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Morocco Région Jorf Lasfar
Morocco Dakhla area
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Namibia 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Africa Dassen Island
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Japan Awase tidal flat
Japan Yaeyama islands
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Ikawazu tidal flat
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Dongjin estuary
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom South Down Coast
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
USA Delaware Coastal Zone
USA Delaware Bayshore Region
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Norway Slettnes
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Russia (Asian) Chaun delta
Russia (Asian) Wrangel and Herald Islands
Russia (Asian) Preobrazheniya island
Russia (Asian) Lower Nizhnyaya Taymyra river
Russia (Asian) Izvestiy Tsik islands
Russia (Asian) Gusikha river basin and lower Balakhnya river
Russia (Asian) West Chaun plain
Russia (Asian) Cape Billings

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Arenaria interpres. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/ruddy-turnstone-arenaria-interpres on 21/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 21/02/2024.