LC
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 27,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 360,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.460,000-730,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2015). National population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan, China; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 35,900-77,100 pairs, which equates to 71,800-154,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America the trend is increasing (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007) whilst in Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 21.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant
Algeria N Extant
American Samoa N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Cook Islands N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Polynesia N Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mauritius N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nauru N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Paraguay V Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant
Romania N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda V Extant
Samoa N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) N Extant
Tonga N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Tuvalu N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
Costa Rica Nicoya Gulf mangroves and coastal areas
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Baie de Goulven
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
French Guiana Ile de Cayenne
French Guiana Littoral
French Guiana Littoral Kourou
French Guiana Littoral Macouria
French Guiana Littoral Sinnamary
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague
Gambia Tanji River (Karinti) Bird Reserve
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Melrakkaslétta
Iceland Skerjafjördur
Iceland Stafnes-Gardur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Japan Awase tidal flat
Japan Ikawazu tidal flat
Japan Inner Tokyo bay
Japan Lake Furen, On-netou
Japan Notsuke, Odaitou
Japan Shiokawa tidal flat
Japan Yaeyama islands
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Cap Blanc
Mexico Estero Cardonal
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Laguna de Términos
Mexico Ría Lagartos
Morocco Dakhla area
Morocco Région Jorf Lasfar
Namibia 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Walvis Bay
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Norway Slettnes
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Palau Northern Peleliu Lkes (sandflats)
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Puerto Rico (to USA) Jobos Bay
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Seychelles Cosmoledo
South Africa Dassen Island
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Coastal area of Eastern Gotland
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom South Down Coast
United Kingdom South Uist Machair and Lochs
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
USA Delaware Bayshore Region
USA Delaware Coastal Zone
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Arenaria interpres. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/11/2019.