LC
Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 43,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 37,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.170,000-220,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 17,000-26,500 pairs, which equates to 33,900-53,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia V Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary V Extant
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan V Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Malta V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands V Extant Yes
North Korea V Extant
North Macedonia V Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles V Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant
Sudan N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extinct Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir)
Azerbaijan Glynanyi island
Azerbaijan Mount Kargabazar and Mount Gush-gaya
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Pirsagat Islands and Los Island
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Cyprus Akhna dam
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Turkey Demirkopru reservoir
Turkey Marmara Lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Acıgöl Lake
Turkey Karataş Lake
Turkey Yarışlı Lake
Turkey Burdur Lake
Turkey Balıkdamı
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkey Palas Lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Hirfanlı Reservoir
Turkey Yedikır Reservoir
Turkey Kulu Lake
Turkey Ereğli Plain
Turkey Karapınar Plain
Turkey Erzurum Marshes
Turkey Haçlı Lake
Turkey Aktaş Lake
Turkey Çıldır Lake
Turkey Erçek Lake
Moldova Congaz – Taraclia Lakes
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Evros delta
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Russia (European) Priyeruslanskiye sands
Russia (European) Akhtubinsk wetland
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Greece Tokmakia islets, Lesvos
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Kuyucuk Lake
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Croatia Cetina River
Algeria Dayet El Ferd
Morocco Merja Zerga
Morocco Barrage Mohamed V
Morocco Barrage Idriss Premier
Morocco Parc Naturel d'Ifrane
Morocco Aguelmane n'Tifounassine
Morocco Aguelmane de Sidi Ali Ta'nzoult
Morocco Barrage al Massira
Morocco Sebkha Zima
Morocco Merzouga/Tamezguidat
Morocco Barrage al Mansour Ad-Dhabi
Morocco Msseyed
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Turkey Saros Bay
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Girdev Lake and Akdağlar
Iraq Attariya Plains
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Haft Barm
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Harm lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gordeh Git and Mamiyand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Russia (European) Turali lakes
Russia (European) Temirgoiskiye lakes
Russia (European) Manoilinskaya steppe
Russia (European) Rakhinski forest
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Achikol'skiye lakes
Bhutan Ada lake / Puna Tsangchu
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Changtang plateau
China (mainland) Siling Co Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor)
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Shwegu Section
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Singu Section
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Sinbyugyun to Minbu Section
Myanmar Ayeyarwaddy River at Myede
Myanmar Inmagyi (Vishnu Inn)
Myanmar Ayeyarwady Delta (including Meinmahla Kyun)
Mongolia Khoton-Khorgon Lakes
Mongolia Dayan Lake
Mongolia Tolbo Lake
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Uureg Lake
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Baga and Bayan Lakes
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khar Lake
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Telmen Lake
Mongolia Erkhel Lake
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Khovsgoliin Sangiin Dalai Lake
Mongolia Airkhan Lake
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Selengiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Delta of Orkhon and Selenge Rivers
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes
Mongolia Ganga Lakes
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake
Russia (Asian) Sayan reservoir (Tuva part)
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Myitkyina to Sinbo Section
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Bhamo Section
India Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary
India Asan Barrage
Georgia Bogdasheni Lake
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (European) Novotroitskoye reservoir
Russia (Central Asian) Volchihinskay
Russia (Central Asian) Lyapuniha Lake
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Russia (Central Asian) Vaganovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Rocky outcrops of river Uj
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Isei Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Dono-Donetskoye flood-plain
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity)
Russia (European) Forest-steppe Gyul'chachak (Peony forest-steppe)
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i Jowin and Rud-i Kalshur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Mongolia Taigam Lake
Mongolia Taatsiin Tsagaan Lake
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Lomovete
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Harsovska Reka
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Bulgaria Yatata
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Russia (European) Archedinskiye sands
Austria Ibmer Moor
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria)
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes)
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Tajikistan Dangara massif
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Russia (European) Budary lakes
Russia (European) Kissyk area
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Karanogaiskiye steppes
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Chonta
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Southern Agrakhan lake
Uzbekistan Chimkurgan Reservoir
Russia (European) Sulakskaya bay
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Turkmenistan Gurtli
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains
Turkmenistan Kopetdagkhovudan
Turkmenistan Soltansanjar - Duyeboyun
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Russia (European) Karakol'skiye lakes
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Salt lakes
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Russia (Asian) Islands of the Enisey river near Shushenskoye
Turkey Hörmetçi Marshes
Turkey Bolluk Lake
Turkey Çorak Lake
Turkey Çığlıkara Forests (and Avlan Lake)
Turkey Sodalıgöl (Arın Lake)
Turkey Çelebibağı Reedbeds
Russia (European) Dudarevskaya steppe
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Ust'-Medveditskaya area
Russia (European) Ergeninskaya area
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Issyk Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Son-Kul Lake
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Mongolia Oigon Lake
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes
Mongolia Zavkhan River - Ereen Lake
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Iraq Mosul Lake
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Tadorna cana Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Hybridisation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Tadorna ferruginea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2020.