Ruddy Pigeon Patagioenas subvinacea


Justification of Red List Category

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 16.3-20.4% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (20 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Patagioenas subvinacea is a polytypic species of northern South America. The nominate subspecies subvinacea occurs in Costa Rica and Panama. Subspecies berlepschi ranges from south-west Panama along Colombia's Pacific coast to south-west Ecuador, where it is described as uncommon to frequent (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Restall et al. 2006). Subspecies zuliae is found in north-east Colombia and west Venezuela. Subspecies peninsularis is endemic to the Paria Peninsula in north-east Venezuela. Subspecies purpureotincta ranges from south-east Colombia through south Venezuela to the Guianas (del Hoyo et al. 1997). It is uncommon in Suriname, but common in Guyana and French Guiana (Restall et al. 2006). Subspecies bogotensis is distributed from Colombia's north-west Andes through east Peru to Amazonian Brazil and north-eastern Bolivia (del Hoyo et al. 1997).


This is a canopy species of medium to high altitude forest, occurring most often between 1,000-2,000 m, but it has been recorded at 2,200 m in Colombia. Movements to lower elevations during the non-breeding season have been recorded in Costa Rica. It tends to occupy tall forests in Amazonia. Diet consists of fruit from trees, such as Ficus and Cecropia, and epiphytes (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Hilty 2003). It has been recorded breeding between April and August in Colombia; the nest is a platform of sticks 5 m above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1997).


The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin and elsewhere within its range (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Whilst it is tolerant of disturbed primary forest, hunting presents an additional threat (A. Lees in litt. 2011).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006)


27-33 cm. Medium-sized, brown-and-pinkish pigeon. Grey-pink head. Pinkish throat and underparts, with small white patch on throat. Brownish lower belly and vent. Upperparts and wings greenish brown. Darker on wings than back. Brown rump with darker uppertail-coverts. Dark brown tail. Black bill. Similar spp. Plumbeous Pigeon P. plumbea bulks larger, and has a more greyish than ruddy colouration. Voice Call is a high-pitched wuck, ca, coo-woo, with the last syllables well articulated and faster. Hints Generally seen as singles, pairs or groups of up to 15.


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A., Sharpe, C J

Lees, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Patagioenas subvinacea. Downloaded from on 07/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/12/2021.