EN
Rudd's Lark Heteromirafra ruddi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2c+3c+4c A2c+3c+4c; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Endangered A2c+3c+4c
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c; C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A3c;C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A3c; C2a(i)
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 60,100 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1700-3300 poor estimated 1998
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-10 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -

Population justification: Siegfried (1992) suggested a global population of 1,500-5,000 individuals. Estimates for the proposed Grassland Biosphere Reserve suggest that 2,500 individuals is a more realistic lower limit for this species. This range is roughly equivalent to 1,700-3,300 mature individuals, however, the total may be significantly lower (D. Maphisa in litt. 2012, 2016).

Trend justification: Because much of the population may be on private land, and it is an elusive species, makes it difficult to get accurate population measures (D. Maphisa in litt. 2016). Analyses of Southern African Bird Atlas Project data have shown a possible 40% decline in range (with a 14% decline in core range) (Lee et al. 2017), and Peacock (2015) estimate the decline at >50%. However, its absence has recently been noted at former strongholds, particularly at Mataliele (where it is now presumed extinct) (D. Maphisa in litt. 2007, N. Theron and R. Colyn in litt. 2016). Suspected declines in the Wakkestroom population have also been raised (N. Theron and R. Colyn  in litt. 2016), with repeat surveys in 2016 of 33 transects originally covered in 2002 (Maphisa 2004) showing declines in both the number of transects (down from 9 to 5) where the species was found, and the number of individuals recorded (down from 32 to 9) (Gush 2017). This suggests it is presently in severe decline, with the decline over three generations (c.11.5 years) tentatively placed in the range of 50-79%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
South Africa Alexpan
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve
South Africa Steenkampsberg
South Africa Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Altitude 1600 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Heteromirafra ruddi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2019.