NT
Royal Sunangel Heliangelus regalis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened C2a(i)
2016 Endangered A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2013 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type continent
Average mass 4 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 64,000 km2 medium
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 3000-8999 mature individuals poor inferred 2021
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2016-2026
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 1-9% - - -
Generation length 2.3 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification:

The population in Ecuador is estimated at 2,500 individuals (Freile et al. 2011). The population in Peru is suspected to number 2,500-10,000 individuals (SERFOR 2018). Combining national population sizes, it is precautionarily inferred that the global population may number 5,000-12,500 individuals, roughly converted to 3,000-8,999 mature individuals. This however requires confirmation. 

Trend justification: This species is in decline as a consequence of the loss and fragmentation of its habitat. Tree cover loss within the species range equates to <2% over ten years (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). And although the species can inhabit stunted forest on poor, sandy soils that do not support agriculture or cattle ranching, it is not considered to inhabit completely deforested areas (Heynen et al. 2020). For these reasons, the species is suspected to be undergoing a rate of decline equating 1-9% over three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Ecuador extant native yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Peru Jesús del Monte
Peru Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul
Peru San Jose de Lourdes
Peru Abra Patricia - Alto Mayo
Peru Cordillera de Colán

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Altitude 550 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Heliangelus regalis. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/royal-sunangel-heliangelus-regalis on 29/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 29/02/2024.