LC
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 184,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 120,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.2 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.200,000-220,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 2,300-2,900 pairs, which equates to 4,500-5,800 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are increasing or stable (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Barbados V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Belize N Extant
Benin V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Brunei V Extant
Cambodia U Extant
Cameroon U Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) U Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) U Extant
Colombia V Extant
Comoros U Extant
Côte d'Ivoire U Extant
Cuba N Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Equatorial Guinea U Extant
Fiji U Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana U Extant
French Southern Territories U Extant
Gambia V Extant
Germany V Extant
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Guatemala U Extant Yes
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana U Extant
Haiti N Extant
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of U Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kenya N Extant Yes
Liberia U Extant
Libya V Extant
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malaysia U Extant
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Mauritius N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) U Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of U Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Mozambique U Extant
Myanmar V Extant
Nauru U Extant
Netherlands V Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
Nigeria U Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan U Extant
Palau U Extant
Panama U Extant
Papua New Guinea N Extant Yes
Philippines U Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) U Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe U Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone U Extant
Singapore V Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Suriname U Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand U Extant
Timor-Leste U Extant
Togo N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu V Extant
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Portugal Ilhéus do Porto Santo
Ireland Rockabill
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland Inishkeeragh and Illancrone
Ireland Dublin Bay
Spain Salmor rocky islets
France Ile de Goulmedec
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Cap Gris-nez
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
Bahamas Great Isaac Cay
Ghana Densu Delta Ramsar Site and vicinity
Ghana Songor Ramsar Site
Kenya Kisite island
Kenya Kiunga Marine National Reserve
Kenya Mida Creek, Whale Island and the Malindi - Watamu coast
Madagascar Cape Anorontany Archipelago NPA
Madagascar Tambohorano Wetland NPA
Madagascar Barren Islands MPA
Madagascar Nosy Manitse Future SAPM Marine and surrounding wetlands
Mauritius Cargados Carajos Shoals
Seychelles Aride Island Special Reserve
Seychelles Etoile island
Somalia Jasiira lagoon and Muqdisho islets
Tanzania Dar es Salaam coast
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-South Coast
South Africa Algoa Bay Islands: Addo Elephant National Park
Oman Bandar Jussah
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Khawr Hassan
Oman Daymaniyat Islands
Taiwan, China Northeastern Sea Islets
Taiwan, China Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge
Taiwan, China Southern Sea Islets
Taiwan, China Northern Sea Islets
China (mainland) Wuyu Dao Island
Japan Yaeyama islands
Japan Okinawa coastal islets
Brunei Brunei Bay
Portugal Porto Santo Oeste
Portugal Ilhéu de Baixo e Costa Adjacente
Portugal Ilhéu da Praia
Portugal Serra Branca
Portugal Furnas - Santo António
Portugal Costa das Flores
Portugal Costa do Corvo
Portugal Capelinhos
Portugal Ribeirinha
Portugal Ilhéu do Topo e Costa Adjacente
Portugal Contendas
Portugal Ilhéu da Vila
Portugal Ilhéu das Lagoínhas e Costa Adjacente
Portugal Ponta da Ilha e Terra Alta
France Rade de Lorient
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays
Anguilla (to UK) Scrub Island
Virgin Islands (to UK) Green Cay
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay
St Martin (to France) Tintamarre
Canada Machias Seal Island
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia
Canada Country Island Complex
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Île Paquet
Canada Îlot C
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Bahamas Cay Lobos
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas Tee Cay, Goat Cay and Long Rocks
Bahamas Guana Cays
St Kitts and Nevis Ponds of the Southeast Peninsula
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Martinique (to France) Îlets Boiseau et Petit Piton
Martinique (to France) Pointe Pain de Sucre
Belize Belize Off-shore and Barrier Islands
Bahamas Cay Sal
Bahamas Great Inagua
Puerto Rico (to USA) Karso del Sur
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Puerto Rico (to USA) Suroeste
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caño Tiburones
St Lucia Point Sables
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Bahamas Booby Island
St Kitts and Nevis Booby Island
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Guadeloupe (to France) Islet of Tête à l’Anglais
St Vincent and the Grenadines Battowia Island
Brazil Mangue Seco
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du Nord-Ouest
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots du lagon sud
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots de Poindimié
Australia Haul Round Island
Australia Higginson Island
Australia Islet off NE Grooyte Eylandt
Australia Sandy Island and Low Rock (Gulf of Carpentaria)
Australia Pearce, Urquhart and Hervey Islands (Sir Edward Pellew Group)
Australia Bountiful Islands
St Vincent and the Grenadines All Awash Island
St Vincent and the Grenadines Petit Canouan
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Australia Houtman Abrolhos
Australia Lacepede Islands
Australia Low Rocks and Sterna Island (Kimberley)
Australia Montebello Islands
Australia Sunday Island (Exmouth Gulf)
Australia Cape York to Cape Grenville Islands
Australia Swain Reefs
Puerto Rico (to USA) Acantilados del Noroeste
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
China (mainland) Zhongjieshan Islands
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taizhou Islands
China (mainland) Dongtou Islands
Brazil Mangue Seco - Marine
South Africa Alexandria coastal belt / Algoa Bay Island Nature Reserve - Marine
Australia Houtman Abrolhos - Marine
Australia Sunday Island (Exmouth Gulf) - Marine
Australia Montebello Islands - Marine
Madagascar Iles Barren complex - Marine
Australia Lacepede Islands - Marine
Mauritius Cargados Carajos shoals (Saint Brandon) - Marine
Australia Low Rocks & Sterna Island (Kimberley) - Marine
Madagascar Cape Anorontany archipelago - Marine
Australia Haul Round Island - Marine
Tanzania Zanzibar Island: south coast - Marine
Seychelles African Banks / Boudeuse island / Etoile island / Marie Louise island - Marine
Kenya Kisite island - Marine
Seychelles Aride island - Marine
Kenya Mida Creek, Whale Island and the Malindi - Watamu coast - Marine
Kenya Kiunga Marine National Reserve - Marine
Somalia Jasiira lagoon and Muqdisho islets - Marine
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas - Marine
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays / East Caicos and adjacent areas / Turks Bank Seabird Cays - Marine
Taiwan, China Cat Islet Seabird Refuge, Penghu County Refuge / Northern Sea Islets / Northeastern Sea Islets / Southern Sea Islets - Marine
China (mainland) Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge - Marine
Japan Yaeyama islands - Marine
Japan Okinawa coastal islets - Marine
Australia Haul Round Island - Marine
Australia Higginson Island - Marine
Australia Islet off NE Grooyte Eylandt - Marine
Australia Sandy Island & Low Rock (Gulf of Carpentaria) - Marine
Australia Pearce, Urquhart & Hervey islands (Sir Edward Pellow Group) - Marine
Australia Bountiful Islands / Manowar & Rocky Islands - Marine
Australia Cape York to Cape Grenville Islands / Islands north of Port Stewart / Piper Islands / Raine Island, Moulter & Maclennan Cays (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Australia Swain Reefs (Great Barrier Reef) - Marine
Canada Country Island Complex - Marine
Puerto Rico (to USA) South Karst / Southwest - Marine
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caño Tiburones - Marine
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Tobago / Culebra / Green Cay / North-west Cays / Saba Island and Cays - Marine
Bahamas Great Inagua - Marine
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero / Scrub Island / Saba coastline / Dog Island / Îlets les Petits Saints et Gros Islets - Marine
St Vincent and the Grenadines All Awash Island - Marine
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays - Marine
Martinique (to France) Boisseau and Petit Piton islets - Marine
Bahamas Cay Sal - Marine
Cuba Cay Lobos - Marine
Bahamas Tee Cay, Goat Cay and Long Rocks - Marine
Bahamas Guana Cays - Marine
Bahamas Booby Island - Marine
Aruba (to Netherlands) Oranjestad Reef Islands / San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands - Marine
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve - Marine
India Burnt Island (Bandra) Vengurla Rocks - marine
India Burnt Island (Bandra) Vengurla Rocks
USA Great Gull Island
New Caledonia (to France) Îlot Goélands
New Caledonia (to France) Grand Lagon Sud Marin
New Caledonia (to France) Grand Lagon Nord Marin
New Caledonia (to France) Îlots de Poindimié Marin
New Caledonia (to France) District de Wetr à Lifou
Solomon Islands Gizo
New Caledonia (to France) Grand Lagon Sud Marin
Portugal Faial
Portugal Corvo e Flores
Portugal Pico - Norte
Portugal São Jorge - Oeste
Portugal São Jorge - Nordeste
Portugal Santa Maria
Portugal São Miguel - Sul
Portugal Terceira
Portugal Graciosa
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Madagascar Three Bays Complex
Japan Ariake Bay-Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) marginal breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable passage
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable passage
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 18 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sterna dougallii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/09/2020.