Rook Corvus frugilegus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 37,600,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 35,400,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 54000000-94999999 mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 7.3 years - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 8,170,000-14,200,000 pairs, which equates to 16,300,000-28,400,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 54,300,000-94,700,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline following considerable decreases, especially in the east Asian populations (Madge and Burn 1993). In Europe, trends between 1980 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (EBCC 2015). However data collected for the European Red List of Birds shows that the European population has undergone a decline of less than 25% in 21.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native
Algeria extant vagrant
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes
Egypt extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant vagrant
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes
Japan extant native
Jordan extant vagrant
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kuwait extant vagrant yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Liechtenstein extant native
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malta extant vagrant
Moldova extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Netherlands extant native yes
New Zealand extant introduced yes
North Korea extant native
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant native yes yes
Portugal extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Serbia extant native yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
South Korea extant native
Spain extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes
Taiwan, China extant vagrant
Tajikistan extant native
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes yes
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Corvus frugilegus. Downloaded from on 30/11/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/11/2023.