Rock Dove Columba livia


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.260,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 11,000,000-22,600,000 pairs, which equates to 22,100,000-45,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population size is suspected to be decreasing owing to interbreeding with domestic form; declines have been recorded in Israel (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
American Samoa I Extant Yes
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola I Extant Yes
Anguilla (to UK) I Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda I Extant Yes
Argentina I Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Australia I Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas I Extant Yes
Bahrain I Extant Yes
Bangladesh I Extant Yes
Barbados I Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize I Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) I Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bolivia I Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana I Extant Yes
Brazil I Extant Yes
Brunei I Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso I Extant Yes
Cambodia I Extant Yes
Canada I Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Chile I Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia I Extant Yes
Comoros I Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the I Extant Yes
Cook Islands I Extant Yes
Costa Rica I Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire I Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba I Extant Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark I Extant Yes
Djibouti I Extant Yes
Dominica I Extant Yes
Dominican Republic I Extant Yes
Ecuador I Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes
El Salvador I Extant Yes
Eritrea V Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini I Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji I Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
French Guiana I Extant Yes
French Polynesia I Extant Yes
Gabon I Extant Yes
Gambia I Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana I Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) I Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Grenada I Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) I Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) I Extant Yes
Guatemala I Extant Yes
Guinea I Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau I Extant Yes
Guyana I Extant Yes
Haiti I Extant Yes
Honduras I Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) I Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia I Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica I Extant Yes
Japan I Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya I Extant Yes
Kiribati I Extant Yes
Kuwait I Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos I Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lesotho I Extant Yes
Liberia I Extant Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Liechtenstein I Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Madagascar I Extant Yes
Malaysia I Extant Yes
Maldives I Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Malta N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands U Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) I Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius I Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) I Extant Yes
Mexico I Extant Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of I Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) I Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Mozambique I Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Namibia I Extant Yes
Nauru I Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands I Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) I Extant Yes
New Zealand I Extant Yes
Nicaragua I Extant Yes
Niger I Extant Yes
Nigeria I Extant Yes
North Korea I Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) I Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama I Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea I Extant Yes
Paraguay I Extant Yes
Peru I Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) I Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) I Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) I Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Samoa I Extant Yes
San Marino N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe I Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal I Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles I Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) I Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia I Extant Yes
South Africa I Extant Yes
South Korea I Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka I Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) I Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) I Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis I Extant Yes
St Lucia I Extant Yes
St Martin (to France) I Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) I Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines I Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Suriname I Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China I Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand I Extant Yes
Timor-Leste I Extant Yes
Togo I Extant Yes
Tonga I Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago I Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
Uganda I Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) I Extant Yes
Uruguay I Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela I Extant Yes
Vietnam I Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) I Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) I Extant Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) I Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes
Zambia I Extant Yes
Zimbabwe I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ilhéus do Porto Santo
Portugal Ponta de São Lourenço
Cyprus Episkopi Cliffs
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Mount Zakrou, Crete
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Patmos island and surrounding islets
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Kyllini (Ziria)
Greece Northern Syros
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Spain Antequera mountain range-El Chorro
Spain Coastal cliffs between Cape Enderrocat and Cala Pí
Spain La Playa islet
Spain El Roque coastal cliffs
Spain El Médano coast
France Détroit de Bonifaccio et Iles Lavezzi
France Iles Cerbicale
France Golfe de Porto, presqu'île de Scandola et golfe de Galeria
France Vallée du Régino
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vaqueria
Bahamas Driggs Hill to Mars Bay
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Klein Bonaire, Bonaire
Aruba (to Netherlands) Bubali Wetlands
Turkmenistan Garashor
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Kazakhstan Karasor Lake
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Brazil São Francisco Xavier / Monte Verde
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif
Kazakhstan Saumalkol Lake
Kazakhstan Balyktykol Lake
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Kazakhstan Tassuat Lake
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest major resident
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Columba livia. Downloaded from on 28/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/09/2020.