LC
Rock Dove Columba livia



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 61,000,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2009
Population trend decreasing - suspected -
Generation length 5.8 years - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.260,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 11,000,000-22,600,000 pairs, which equates to 22,100,000-45,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population size is suspected to be decreasing owing to interbreeding with domestic form; declines have been recorded in Israel (del Hoyo et al. 1997).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native yes
Algeria extant native yes
American Samoa extant introduced yes
Andorra extant native yes
Angola extant introduced yes
Anguilla (to UK) extant introduced yes
Antigua and Barbuda extant introduced yes
Argentina extant introduced yes
Armenia extant native yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant introduced yes
Australia extant introduced yes
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahamas extant introduced yes
Bahrain extant introduced yes
Bangladesh extant introduced yes
Barbados extant introduced yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Belize extant introduced yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant introduced yes
Bhutan extant native yes
Bolivia extant introduced yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) extant introduced yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native yes
Botswana extant introduced yes
Brazil extant introduced yes
Brunei extant introduced yes
Bulgaria extant native yes
Burkina Faso extant introduced yes
Cambodia extant introduced yes
Canada extant introduced yes
Cape Verde extant native yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant introduced yes
Chad extant native yes
Chile extant introduced yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
Colombia extant introduced yes
Comoros extant introduced yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant introduced yes
Cook Islands extant introduced yes
Costa Rica extant introduced yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant introduced yes
Croatia extant native yes
Cuba extant introduced yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant introduced yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant introduced yes
Djibouti extant introduced yes
Dominica extant introduced yes
Dominican Republic extant introduced yes
Ecuador extant introduced yes
Egypt extant native yes
El Salvador extant introduced yes
Eritrea extant vagrant yes
Estonia extant native yes
Eswatini extant introduced yes
Ethiopia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Fiji extant introduced yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes
French Guiana extant introduced yes
French Polynesia extant introduced yes
Gabon extant introduced yes
Gambia extant introduced yes
Georgia extant native yes
Germany extant native yes
Ghana extant introduced yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant introduced yes
Greece extant native yes
Grenada extant introduced yes
Guadeloupe (to France) extant introduced yes
Guam (to USA) extant introduced yes
Guatemala extant introduced yes
Guinea extant introduced yes
Guinea-Bissau extant introduced yes
Guyana extant introduced yes
Haiti extant introduced yes
Honduras extant introduced yes
Hong Kong (China) extant introduced yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant native yes
India extant native yes
Indonesia extant introduced yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native yes
Italy extant native yes
Jamaica extant introduced yes
Japan extant introduced yes
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kenya extant introduced yes
Kiribati extant introduced yes
Kuwait extant introduced yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Laos extant introduced yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes
Lesotho extant introduced yes
Liberia extant introduced yes
Libya extant native yes
Liechtenstein extant introduced yes
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Madagascar extant introduced yes
Malaysia extant introduced yes
Maldives extant introduced yes
Mali extant native yes
Malta extant native yes
Marshall Islands extant uncertain yes
Martinique (to France) extant introduced yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Mauritius extant introduced yes
Mayotte (to France) extant introduced yes
Mexico extant introduced yes
Micronesia, Federated States of extant introduced yes
Moldova extant native yes
Monaco extant native yes
Mongolia extant native yes
Montenegro extant native yes
Montserrat (to UK) extant introduced yes
Morocco extant native yes
Mozambique extant introduced yes
Myanmar extant native yes
Namibia extant introduced yes
Nauru extant introduced yes
Nepal extant native yes
Netherlands extant introduced yes
New Caledonia (to France) extant introduced yes
New Zealand extant introduced yes
Nicaragua extant introduced yes
Niger extant introduced yes
Nigeria extant introduced yes
North Korea extant introduced yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) extant introduced yes
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant native yes
Pakistan extant native yes
Palestine extant native yes
Panama extant introduced yes
Papua New Guinea extant introduced yes
Paraguay extant introduced yes
Peru extant introduced yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant introduced yes
Qatar extant native yes
Réunion (to France) extant introduced yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes yes
Russia (Asian) extant introduced yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Samoa extant introduced yes
San Marino extant native yes
São Tomé e Príncipe extant introduced yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Senegal extant introduced yes
Serbia extant native yes
Seychelles extant introduced yes
Singapore extant introduced yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) extant introduced yes
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Somalia extant introduced yes
South Africa extant introduced yes
South Korea extant introduced yes
Spain extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant introduced yes
St Barthelemy (to France) extant introduced yes
St Helena (to UK) extant introduced yes
St Kitts and Nevis extant introduced yes
St Lucia extant introduced yes
St Martin (to France) extant introduced yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant introduced yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines extant introduced yes
Sudan extant native yes
Suriname extant introduced yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes
Taiwan, China extant introduced yes
Tajikistan extant native yes
Thailand extant introduced yes
Timor-Leste extant introduced yes
Togo extant introduced yes
Tonga extant introduced yes
Trinidad and Tobago extant introduced yes
Tunisia extant native yes
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant introduced yes
Uganda extant introduced yes
Ukraine extant native yes
United Arab Emirates extant native yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) extant introduced yes
Uruguay extant introduced yes
USA extant introduced yes
Uzbekistan extant native yes
Venezuela extant introduced yes
Vietnam extant introduced yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant introduced yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant introduced yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) extant introduced yes
Western Sahara extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes
Zambia extant introduced yes
Zimbabwe extant introduced yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest major resident
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Columba livia. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/rock-dove-columba-livia on 04/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 04/03/2024.