LC
Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 9,170,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 600000-1199999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.1 - - -

Population justification: In Europe (which covers c.95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 299,000-598,000 pairs, which equates to 597,000-1,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The European population trend between 1998 and 2013 was estimated to be stable (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extinct Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Liechtenstein Garselli-Zigerberg, Alpengebiet
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains
Romania Rodnei Mountains
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Ireland Wicklow Mountains
Ireland Killarney National Park
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Kočevsko
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Kullaberg
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Tatra mountains
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Lower Urushten river
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Boumort mountains
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Gorgany
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Plateau Ardennais
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or
France Forêt d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risoux
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Massacre
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Puig Carlit et environs
France Massif du Madres et Mont Coronat
France Vallées du Lis et de la Pique
France Cirque de Gavarnie
France Vallée du Haut-Guil
France Bois des Ayes
France Bois du Chapitre
France Montagne des Frêtes et plateau des Glières
France Les Bauges
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Montagne de la Serre
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Cap Gris-nez
France Chaîne des Alpilles
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Marais de la Souche
United Kingdom Ben Alder
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Caenlochan
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Creag Meagaidh
United Kingdom Drumochter Hills
United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest
United Kingdom Lochnagar
United Kingdom Monadhliath
United Kingdom North Yorkshire Moors
United Kingdom Peak District Moors
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Upper Deeside Plantations
United Kingdom Ladder Hills
United Kingdom Moorfoot Hills
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Antigorio and Formazza valleys
Italy Val Grande
Czechia Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains)
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czechia Beskydy mountains
Czechia Jeseniky mountains
Serbia Tara mountain
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Prokletije
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Velká Fatra
Slovakia Volovské hills
Slovakia Riecnica
Slovakia Malá Fatra
Slovakia Chocské hills
Slovakia Bukovské hills
Slovakia Tatry
Slovakia Polana
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Slovakia Levocské hills
Slovakia Spisská Magura
Slovakia Muránska plateau and Stolicke hills
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Lovunden
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Switzerland Mont Tendre
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Gurnigel
Switzerland Augstmatthorn
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel
Switzerland Central Valais between Sierre and Visp
Switzerland Valley of Zermatt
Switzerland Aletsch region
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park
Switzerland Simplon region
Switzerland Piora - Dötra
Switzerland Bregaglia valley
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn
Switzerland Maggia valley
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz
Germany Karwendel and Karwendel foothills
Germany Ammergau mountains
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Bayerischer Wald National Park with Arber region and Hohem Bogen
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Westerzgebirge around Carlsfeld
Germany Erzgebirgskamm near Satzung
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Middle-eastern Black Forest
Germany Feldberg in the Black Forest
Germany Simonswald-Rohrhardsberg
Montenegro Durmitor
Russia (European) Right coast of Malaya Laba River
Bulgaria Ponor
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Parc National de la Vanoise
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tandoureh
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Hohe Tauern National Park
Austria Karwendel
Ukraine Vodorazdil'ni i Zovnishni Gorgany
United Kingdom South Pennine and Peak District Moors
Russia (European) Alagirskoye i Kurtatinskoye ravines (Severo-Osetinski (North Osetin) Nature Reserve)
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river
Slovenia Pohorje
Slovenia Grintovci
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Germany Harz National Park
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Southern Black Forest
Germany Central Black Forest
Ireland Glenveagh National Park
Poland Karkonosze Mountains
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains
Poland Babia Gora Mountain
Poland Polica Mountain Range
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Izerskie Mountains
Poland Poprad Site
Slovenia Karavanke
Armenia Mount Ara
Armenia Dsegh
Serbia Golija
Sweden Lake Laidaure

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude 300 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Turdus torquatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/06/2020.