EN
Rimatara Lorikeet Vini kuhlii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(iii,v) B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(iii,v)
2013 Endangered B1ab(v)
2012 Endangered B1ab(v)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,100 medium
Number of locations 5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500 good estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 4 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The latest population estimates are 835 on Rimatara (Blanvillain et al. 2015), >100 on Atiu (G. McCormack in litt. 2016), >1,000 on Teraina, 50 on Tabuaeran and small numbers on Kiritimati; an overall population size of about 2000 individuals or perhaps 1500 mature individuals.

Trend justification: On Rimatara, the population was estimated at >905 birds in 1992 (McCormack and Künzle 1996), c.750 in 2000 (G. McCormack in litt. 2001), 650 in 2002 (Raust and Sanford 2002), 610 in 2004 (Gouni 2005), 1,079 in 2009 (Albar et al. 2009) and 835 in 2015 (Blanvillain et al. 2015). The last two surveys had different timings and methods; correcting for these differences suggests a decline of 40% between 2009 and 2015 (Blanvillain et al. 2015). In April 2007, twenty-seven birds were re-introduced to Atiu in the Cook Islands from Rimatara. The introduction appears to have been successful, with the population estimated at c.40 birds in 2009, 90 ± 19 birds in 2010 and more than 92 birds in 2011 (R. Malcolm in litt. 2010, 2012), and continues to increase (G. McCormack in litt. 2016). On Teraina, the population was estimated at >1,000 individuals, with 50 on Tabuaeran, possibly fewer, on a single islet in the atoll (Watling 1995). On Kiritimati, a few individuals were reported to survive in 1999 (D. Watling in litt. 1999), although the species was suggested to be 'common' in the plantations to the north of the village of London in 2008 (P. Fraser in litt. 2008). Overall, this suggests a slowly declining population.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cook Islands R Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
Kiribati N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cook Islands Atiu
Cook Islands Miti'aro Island
French Polynesia Rimatara
Kiribati Tabuaeran (Fanning Island)
Kiribati Teraina (Washington Island)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Handicrafts, jewellery, decorations, curios, etc. - - - Non-trivial Recent
Wearing apparel, accessories Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Vini kuhlii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/11/2019.