VU
Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,370,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown not applicable not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 44-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 44-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.4 - - -

Population justification: The population size of this species has not been quantified. The species is widespread throughout its range, but occurs at low densities, even in suitable habitat (Poonswad et al. 2013).

Trend justification: An analysis of deforestation between 2000 and 2012 estimated forest loss within the species's range at a rate equivalent to 44% over three generation lengths (55 years) (Tracewski et al. 2016). Being largely restricted to primary forests and intolerant of habitat conversion, the species is additionally threatened by hunting. Thus, its actual rate of population decline is likely greater than the estimate decline based on forest loss alone, possibly exceeding 44% over three generations. The rate of decline is therefore placed in the band 44-49% over three generations. Since this species has a long generation length, with three generations stretching over 55 years, there is insufficient evidence to calculate the magnitude of reduction over the past three generations. Assuming the recent rate of decline remains constant, the species is projected to decline by 44-49% over the next three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Singapore N Extinct Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Ulu Muda
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Pondok Tanjung Forest Reserve
Malaysia Belum-Temenggor
Malaysia Kledang Range
Malaysia Central Titiwangsa Range
Malaysia Hulu Gombak-Sungai Lalang forest
Malaysia Endau-Rompin
Malaysia Panti forest
Malaysia Krau Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Taman Negara National Park
Malaysia South-East Pahang peat swamp forest
Malaysia Mount Kinabalu
Malaysia Kinabatangan floodplain
Malaysia Danum Valley Conservation Area
Malaysia Maliau Basin Conservation Area
Malaysia Tawau Hills Park
Malaysia Tabin Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Kabili-Sepilok
Malaysia Kulamba Wildlife Reserve
Malaysia Tanjung Datu-Samunsam Protected Area
Malaysia Gunung Pueh
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay
Malaysia Sadong-Saribas coast
Malaysia Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
Malaysia Hose-Laga mountains
Malaysia Danum-Linau
Malaysia Usun Apau plateau
Malaysia Similajau National Park
Malaysia Niah National Park
Malaysia Lambir Hills National Park
Malaysia Mulu - Buda Protected Area
Malaysia Kelabit Highlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Buceros rhinoceros. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/07/2020.