EN
Reunion Marsh-harrier Circus maillardi



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(iii); D B1ab(iii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(iii);D
2012 Endangered B1ab(iii);D
2008 Endangered B1a+b(iii); D1
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,100 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 200-560 medium estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.8 - - -

Population justification: Population estimates range from fewer than 100 pairs to 125-130 (Bretagnolle et al. 2000), 130-170 pairs (M. Le Corre in litt. 1999), and most recently 564 adults recorded in 2009-2010, including c.150 confirmed or probable pairs, with the total number perhaps higher (Grondin & Philippe 2011) giving a range of 200-560 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The range seems to have been stable since the late 1970s (Bretagnolle et al. 2000), and the population was believed to be at least stable (V. Bretagnolle in litt. 2007) and probably increasing following the introduction of protection measures (Cheke 1987c; M. Le Corre in litt. 2000; V. Bretagnolle in litt. 2007). Subsequent surveys found a decrease in population density in some areas between 2000 and 2010, however some areas were occupied in 2010 that were unoccupied in 2000 (Grondin & Philippe 2011). The overall trend is difficult to determine, but the species is suspected to have undergone a slow decline between 2000-2010.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Confluent de la Rivière des Pluies et la Ravine Montauban
Réunion (to France) Saint-Paul Wetlands National Natural Reserve
Réunion (to France) La Réunion National Park
Réunion (to France) Marine de Vincendo
Réunion (to France) Saint-Philippe Coast State Forest
Réunion (to France) Sainte-Rose State Forest
Réunion (to France) Basse-Vallée Departemental-State Forest
Réunion (to France) ENS Ravine Renaud
Réunion (to France) ENS Plateau du Dimitile
Réunion (to France) ENS Piton de Montvert
Réunion (to France) ENS Les Orangers
Réunion (to France) ENS Le Tremblet
Réunion (to France) ENS Grande Ravine des Lataniers
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Grande Ravine (Montagne)
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF La Butte - Terrain Couilloux (Montagne)
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Passerelle de la Mare d'Affouches (geological site)
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Petite Ravine des Lataniers
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Piton Armand
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Piton Bernard (Matouta)
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Ravine de l'Hermitage
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Ravine Divon
Réunion (to France) ZNIEFF Ravine Petit Etang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 0 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Circus maillardi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020.