LC
Restinga Tyrannulet Phylloscartes kronei



Justification

Justification of Red List Category

This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be small, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be declining slowly due to habitat loss within its range. The rate of decline has not been quantified.

Distribution and population

Phylloscartes kronei occurs in coastal São Paulo from the rio Ribeira floodplain south (Willis and Oniki 1992), Parana, Santa Catarina and at two localities in extreme north-east Rio Grande do Sul (Bencke et al. 2000, G. A. Bencke in litt. 2000), Brazil. Data from field surveys suggests that it can be locally common (Willis and Oniki 1992).

Ecology

It inhabits woodland edge, second growth and scrubby woodlands in sandy coastal restingas and adjacent riverine forest (Willis and Oniki 1992). At least in the breeding season, it apparently prefers swampy areas with standing water (Remold and Ramos Nieto 1995). It feeds on small insects by sallying and gleaning, sporadically associating with mixed-species flocks (Gussoni 2010). The diet consists mainly of arthropods, especially Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, with some fruit, mainly of Clusia criuva and Ternstroemia brasiliensis (Gussoni 2010). Pairs seem to maintain small territories spaced 100-200 m from their neighbours (Willis and Oniki 1992). It breeds in the austral spring: nest building takes place in September and October, and fledged young are observed being fed by their parents in November and December (Willis and Oniki 1992, Remold and Ramos Nieto 1995, Gussoni 2010). An oven-shaped nest, comprised of lichens and moss, has been described, situated 1.3 m from the ground in a low bush. It contained two young (Remold and Ramos Nieto 1995).

Threats

Within its range, suitable habitat is rapidly cleared for beachfront dwellings and tourist developments, notably on Ilha Comprida, and future pressure on restingas are likely to be great. Deliberately or accidentally started fires are also a threat.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway

It occurs in eleven protected areas (C. O. A. Gussoni in litt. 2012), including Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Environmental Protection Area; Ilha do Cardoso State Park, where there is little suitable habitat; Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, including the recently added 10,000 ha Banhados de Iguape area (P. Develey and A. C. De Luca in litt. 2007), and Ilha do Superagüi National Park (Wege and Long 1995).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Survey to ascertain and monitor its status. Ensure the de facto protection of reserves where it occurs, especially in the south-west of Ilha Comprida.

Identification

12 cm. Small, greenish flycatcher. Dull green upperparts with darker crown. Faint yellowish eyebrow. Thin, blackish eye-stripe and post-auricular crescent. Yellowish underparts, deeper on belly with greenish wash across chest. Dusky wings and tail. Pale yellowish wing-bars, fringing and tertial spots. Inconspicuous greenish fringing on tail. Dark bill with flesh-coloured mandible. Similar spp. Similar to allopatric Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet P. ventralis. Voice Common call is strident and high-pitched plea-ee or tlI-i. Song is fast and twittering sit-it-it-it ...

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Williams, R., Khwaja, N., Clay, R.P., Elliott, N., Pople, R.

Contributors
Bencke, G.A., De Luca, A., Develey, P. & Gussoni, C.C.A.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Phylloscartes kronei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/08/2022.