VU
Relict Gull Larus relictus
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Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,670,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 230,000 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 medium estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 4 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -

Population justification: The population was estimated at 12,000 individuals by Rose and Scott (1997); however, over 7,000 nests were recorded in 2010 and 2011 in the Ordos uplands of western Inner Mongolia and northern China (He Fenqi in litt. 2011), strongly suggesting that the total number of mature individuals exceeds the previous estimate. The population is thus placed in the band for 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, equating to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification: Populations at some breeding sites, e.g. Honjian Lake, have increased, whilst others have declined dramatically, and population trends are difficult to interpret. However, the population is suspected to be decreasing at a moderate rate, as threats such as the reclamation of coastal wetlands for development, and human disturbance at breeding sites, and instability of breeding areas owing to weather fluctuations continue to influence most of the range. Loss of ephemeral wetland habitats in arid regions, associated with climate change, could greatly affect this species in the near future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bulgaria V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Japan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Vietnam V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Coastal mudflat of Tianjin
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Ejin Qidaoqiao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hongjian Nur
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ordos Taolimiao-Alashanwan Haizi
China (mainland) Rong Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Karasuk
Kazakhstan Lake Alakol Islands
Mongolia Airag Lake
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Buir Lake
Mongolia Bulgan River
Mongolia Khar Us Lake
Mongolia Khomiin Tal
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Orog Lake
Mongolia Taigam Lake
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Suncheon Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Larus relictus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2017.