NT
Redwing Turdus iliacus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2b+3b+4b
2015 Near Threatened A2b+3b+4b
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass 61 g
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 18,300,000 km2
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 13,300,000 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown poor estimated 2012
Population trend decreasing - suspected 2008-2024
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Generation length 5.2 years - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 13,200,000-20,100,000 pairs, which equates to 26,300,000-40,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).  Europe forms c. 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 98,000,000-151,000,000 individuals although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 15.6 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015) this is supported by data from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands, P. Vorisek in litt. 2008) which shows that in Europe the populations has undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01) since 1980.  However only around 40% of the species's range falls within Europe, with the global population trend dependent on trends in Asian Russia.  In European Russia, the population has declined by >20% since 2000 and by >30% since 1980 (BirdLife International 2015).  It therefore seems likely that the Asian Russian population has experienced at least some decline.  The overall population is therefore suspected to be declining at a rate approaching 30%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Afghanistan extant native yes
Albania extant native
Algeria extant native
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes
Bahrain extant vagrant yes
Belarus extant native yes
Belgium extant native yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Canada extant vagrant
Croatia extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native yes
Denmark extant native yes yes
Egypt extant native
Estonia extant native yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
Germany extant native yes yes
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Hungary extant native yes
Iceland extant native yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native yes
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes yes
Japan extant vagrant
Jordan extant vagrant
Kazakhstan extant native yes
Kuwait extant native yes
Kyrgyzstan extant native yes
Latvia extant native yes
Lebanon extant native yes yes
Libya extant vagrant
Liechtenstein extant native
Lithuania extant native yes
Luxembourg extant native yes
Malta extant native
Montenegro extant native
Morocco extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
North Macedonia extant native yes
Norway extant native yes
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Serbia extant native
Slovakia extant native yes
Slovenia extant native yes
Spain extant native yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes
Switzerland extant native yes
Syria extant native yes
Tunisia extant native
Türkiye extant native yes
Ukraine extant native yes yes
United Arab Emirates extant vagrant yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant vagrant
Uzbekistan extant native

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Turdus iliacus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/redwing-turdus-iliacus on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 22/02/2024.