LC
Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 59,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 107,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.200,000-600,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while national population estimates include: c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 42,100-93,000 pairs, which equates to 84,200-186,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania U Extant
Algeria V Extant
Armenia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas U Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Liechtenstein V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Monaco U Extant
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Booth Sund area
Greenland (to Denmark) Nordfjord and adjacent valley
Greenland (to Denmark) Eqalummiut Nunaat-Nassuttuup Nunaa
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissut Avalliit (Ydre Kitsissut)
Greenland (to Denmark) Heden
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vøtnini á Sandoy (Lakes of Sandoy)
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Azerbaijan Sangachal Bay
Latvia Orlovas bog
Iceland Utherad
Iceland Melrakkasletta
Estonia Sõrve peninsula
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden River Dal – Håvran
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Pärnu bay
Latvia Irbe strait
Iceland Alftanes-Akrar
Iceland Breidamerkursandur - Fagurholsmyri
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Nuuksio
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Kevo
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Falaise du Bessin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Havre de la Sienne
France Littoral Augeron
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Assynt Lochs
United Kingdom Blackpark and Gutcher, Yell
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Drumochter Hills
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Inverpolly, Loch Urigill and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Lochnagar
United Kingdom Lochs of Spiggie and Brow
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom Ronas Hill - North Roe and Tingon
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom West Burrafirth
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom Sandwick and Clift Hills
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom South Bressay
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Lake Viverone
Italy Lake Garda
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Greenland (to Denmark) Albrecht Sletten (Storsletten), Wollaston Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Eastern German Bight
Norway Jæren
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Havmyran
Norway Gaulosen
Norway Vega archipelago
Norway Solvær archipelago
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Froan
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Tavvavouma
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Reichlos pond
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Reservoir near Affoldern
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park
Croatia Prvic island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
Croatia Turopolje
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Suur Väin strait
Latvia Ziemupe-Riva coastal
Estonia Irbe strait
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Latvia Tuja offshore
Lithuania Marine waters along the continental part of Lithuania
Lithuania Marine waters along the Curonian Spit
Poland Pomeranian bay
Russia (European) Vyborgski Bay
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay
Russia (Asian) Lesser Kuril Ridge and Kunashir Island
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Latvia Sea to the border with Lithuania
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie de Quiberon
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Camargue
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Cap Fagnet
France Etang de Lindre
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Canada Mussel and Kynoch Inlet and Sheep Passage
Canada Seal River Estuary
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Port Franks Forested Dunes
Canada Lac Deschênes
Canada Ekwan to Lakitusaki Shores
Canada Île aux Basques et Les Razades
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Baie des Loups
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
United Kingdom Otterswick and Graveland
United Kingdom Coll
Sweden Kullaberg
Sweden Bog of Komosse
Sweden Bog of Dumme
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Nielisz Site
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Lake Candia
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Konstanzer Bucht of Lake Constance
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Ammersee
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Untermain
Ireland Donegal Bay
Ireland Ballysadare Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Lough Foyle
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir
Poland Central Polish coastal waters
Poland East Border Waters
Slovenia River Drava
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Deception Pass
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Saltstraumen & Skjerstadfjorden
Norway Været
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Norway Øvre Forra
USA Kuskokwim Bay, marine
Estonia Lõu bay
Croatia Western Istrian Maritime Zone
Netherlands Outer Banks
Netherlands Borkum Reef
Netherlands Delta Coast
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Srebrno jezero - Golubac
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Iceland Borgarfjördur-Myrar-Longufjorur
Iceland Breidafjördur
Iceland Arnarvatnsheidi-Tvidaegra
Netherlands Western Scheldt
Netherlands Mainland Coast
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Drini Delta
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Iceland Oxarfjordur
Albania Lake Butrinti
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Velipoja
Albania Lalzi Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Shipping lanes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Gavia stellata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2022.