Justification of Red List Category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km² combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common (Morris and Hawkins 1998). In Anjanaharibe Sud Special Reserve, a density of 108 individuals/km2 was estimated in humid forest (Hawkins et al. 1998), while an estimate in Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park gave 73-504 individuals/km2 (Mustoe et al. 1998).
The species is suspected to be in decline due to ongoing habitat loss and fragmentation. Tree cover loss within the range is currently estimated at 24% across ten years (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al.  data and methods disclosed therein). The species occupies a wide altitudinal range, and although it is sensitive to forest fragmentation (Langrand 1995), it remains common and widespread in the eastern forest where deforestation rates are lower. Therefore, it is tentatively suspected that species may be declining by 1-19% over ten years.
This species is endemic to Madagascar, inhabiting eastern and western tropical forests between 0 and 1,300-1,500 m, occasionally up to 2,000 m (Safford and Hawkins 2020).
This species is a forest interior species, occurring in all native forest formations except littoral and strand forests (Safford and Hawkins 2020). It is widespread in primary rainforests, and also occurs in wooded coffee plantations but only when immediately adjacent to primary forest, and is absent from secondary vegetation (Safford and Hawkins 2020). It seems to prefer riparian forest, particularly with large trees (Langrand 1995). It often forages in mixed species flocks, with a diet primarily focused on small to medium insects (Safford and Hawkins 2020). It builds a bowl-shaped nest structure with two leaves serving as a roof (Rakotomanana et al. 2009).
The main threat to this species is habitat loss and fragmentation. Tree cover loss within the range is currently estimated at 24% across ten years (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al.  data and methods disclosed therein), and although the species occupies a wide altitudinal range, it is particularly sensitive to forest fragmentation and seems to be dependent on good quality forest structure (Langrand 1995). It is found only in fragments larger than 135 ha, and is not known to cross anthropogenic savannah grassland (Langrand 1995).
Conservation Actions Underway
The species occurs in several protected areas, being common in Mantadia Andasibe National Park, Ranomafana National Park and Zombitse-Vohibasia National Park.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey its population density across wider distribution and produce a robust population estimate. Study the species' tolerance to habitat alteration and disturbance.
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Hawkins, F.
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Calicalicus madagascariensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/03/2023.