LC
Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 675.276611328125 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 95,100,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 155,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 1992
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.32,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1992), while the population of Japan has been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs and < c.50 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Australia N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant
Brazil V Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Canada N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant
Cook Islands U Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Japan N Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kiribati U Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malaysia U Extant
Maldives U Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant
Nauru U Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Peru V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Samoa U Extant
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia U Extant
South Africa N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tanzania U Extant
Thailand V Extant
Timor-Leste U Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Coringa-Herald Reefs
Australia Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve (Lord Howe Island IBA)
Chile Isla Rapa Nui
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island
Cook Islands Suwarrow Atoll Marine
Cook Islands Suwarrow Atoll National Park
Cook Islands Takutea Marine
Cook Islands Takutea Wildlife Sanctuary
French Polynesia Maria
French Polynesia Maria Marine
French Polynesia Morane
French Polynesia Morane Marine
French Polynesia Rapa
French Polynesia Rapa Marine
French Southern Territories Europa
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 50 - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api
Indonesia Pulau Manuk
Japan Iwo islands (Iwo Island / Minamiiwojima Island) - Marine
Japan Kazan-retto islands
Kiribati Enderbury Island
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Marine
Kiribati McKean Island
Kiribati McKean Island Marine
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island Marine
Kiribati Nikumaroro (Gardner Island)
Kiribati Phoenix Islands Marine
Mauritius Round Island
New Caledonia (to France) Île Hunter
New Caledonia (to France) Île Hunter Marin
New Zealand Kermadec (offshore)
New Zealand Meyer & Herald Islands
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Norfolk Island / Phillip Island - Marine
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Maug Islands
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Uracus Marine
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Ducie Island
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Oeno Island
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Seychelles Cosmoledo
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland and Baker Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll Marine
USA Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge
USA Lehua Islet
USA Lehua Islet
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 250 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Nestlings Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Phaethon rubricauda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/04/2019.