LC
Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 675 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 95,100,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 155,000,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 70000 poor estimated 2019
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.7 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number 70,000 mature individuals (Partners in Flight 2019).

Trend justification: The population is undergoing a small decline (Partners in Flight 2019).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa U Extant
Australia N Extant
Bangladesh N Extant
Brazil V Extant Yes
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Canada N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Comoros N Extant
Cook Islands U Extant
Fiji V Extant Yes
French Polynesia N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories U Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
High Seas N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Japan N Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kiribati U Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malaysia U Extant
Maldives U Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritius N Extant Yes
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant
Nauru U Extant
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Niue (to New Zealand) U Extant
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Peru V Extant
Philippines N Extant
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Réunion (to France) N Extant Yes
Samoa U Extant
Seychelles N Extant Yes
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia U Extant
South Africa N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tanzania U Extant
Thailand V Extant
Timor-Leste U Extant
Tokelau (to New Zealand) U Extant
Tonga N Extant
Tuvalu U Extant
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu U Extant
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Polynesia Manui, Kamaka, Makaroa
French Polynesia Manuae, Motu One et Maupihaa
French Polynesia Maria
French Polynesia Hatu iti
Kiribati Malden Island
Mauritius Round Island
French Southern Territories Europa
Seychelles Cosmoledo
Seychelles Aldabra Special Reserve
Japan Kazan-retto islands
Indonesia Pulau Manuk
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Oeno Island
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Ducie Island
New Caledonia (to France) Île Hunter
French Polynesia Fangataufa
New Zealand Kermadec (offshore)
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island
Australia Coringa-Herald Reefs
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Norfolk Island
Australia Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve (Lord Howe Island IBA)
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Maug Islands
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez
Chile Isla Rapa Nui
USA Lehua Islet
Kiribati Enderbury Island
Kiribati McKean Island
Kiribati Rawaki (Phoenix Island)
Kiribati Orona Atoll (Hull Island)
Kiribati Nikumaroro (Gardner Island)
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island)
Kiribati Starbuck Island
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island
American Samoa Swain's Atoll
French Polynesia Rimatara
French Polynesia Ilots rocheux de Rapa et Marotiri
French Polynesia Morane
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
French Polynesia Moruroa
French Polynesia Reitoru
French Polynesia Rapa
French Polynesia Fatu Huku
French Polynesia Hatuta'a
American Samoa Rose Atoll
French Polynesia Tubuai, Motu Toena
French Polynesia Akamaru island
French Polynesia Hatu iti
French Polynesia Bora Bora
French Polynesia Maiao
French Polynesia Maupiti
French Polynesia Anuanuraro
French Polynesia Anuanurunga
French Polynesia Hereheretue
French Polynesia Nukutepipi
French Polynesia Tekokota
New Zealand Meyer & Herald Islands
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Curtis Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Macauley Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Meyer Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Napier Island)
New Zealand Kermadec Islands (Raoul Island) - Western Bay, Denham Bay, Islets
New Zealand Nugent Island
USA Lehua Islet
Cook Islands Suwarrow Atoll National Park
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api
USA Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge
Cook Islands Takutea Wildlife Sanctuary
French Southern Territories Europa - Marine
Mauritius Round Island / Serpent Island - Marine
Christmas Island (to Australia) Christmas Island - Marine
Seychelles Aldabra atoll / Cosmoledo atoll - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api - Marine
Indonesia Pulau Manuk - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 73 - Marine
High Seas Indian Ocean, Western 50 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 51 - Marine
Madagascar Indian Ocean, Western 52 - Marine
Madagascar Indian Ocean, Western 64 - Marine
Mozambique Indian Ocean, Western 65 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 66 - Marine
Madagascar Indian Ocean, Western 67 - Marine
French Southern Territories Indian Ocean, Western 68 - Marine
Japan Kazan-Retto Islands - Marine
Australia Coringa-Herald Reefs - Marine
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Norfolk Island / Phillip Island - Marine
Australia Lord Howe Island - Marine
Micronesia, Federated States of Wolouna, Ahnd Atoll
Marshall Islands Enewetok Atoll
Marshall Islands Bokak Atoll
Marshall Islands Bikar Atoll
Marshall Islands Taka Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Wake Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Baker Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland Island
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island
Cook Islands Aitutaki
Cook Islands Mangaia
Cook Islands Miti'aro Island
Cook Islands Rarotonga Cloud Forest
Cook Islands Takitumu Conservation Area, Rarotonga
Kiribati Abariranga (Canton) Island
Kiribati Phoenix Islands Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Howland and Baker Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Johnston Atoll Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Palmyra Atoll Marine
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Jarvis Island Marine
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Uracus Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Île Hunter Marin
Cook Islands Suwarrow Atoll Marine
Kiribati McKean Island Marine
Kiribati Kiritimati (Christmas Island) Marine
Kiribati Millenium (Caroline) Island Marine
French Polynesia Maria Marine
Cook Islands Takutea Marine
New Caledonia (to France) Récifs d'Entrecasteaux
New Caledonia (to France) Îles des récifs Bampton et Chesterfield
New Caledonia (to France) Île Walpole
New Caledonia (to France) District de Wetr à Lifou
Tonga Fonualei
Tonga 'Ata Island
Vanuatu Tongoa and Ambae
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Atafu
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Nukunonu
Solomon Islands East Rennell
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Uracus
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Guguan Island
French Polynesia Morane Marine
French Polynesia Rapa Marine
New Zealand Macauley & Haszard Islands
New Zealand Curtis & Cheeseman Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 250 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Phaethon rubricauda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021.