EN
Red Siskin Spinus cucullatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Spinus cucullatus (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Carduelis and listed as C. cucullata following AOU (1998 and supplements); SACC (2005 and updates); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2d A2d

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2d
2016 Endangered A2d
2012 Endangered A2d
2008 Endangered A2d
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 618,000 km2 medium
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely fragmented? yes -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals medium estimated 2000
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 1998-2008
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 50-79% - - -
Generation length 4.2 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 1-89% - - -

Population justification: A previous estimate of a population in the low thousands in Guyana, based on the observation of 127 individuals, may be too high, with the actual population potentially numbering in the low hundreds (M. Janki in litt. 2005). The Venezuelan population is likely to be 250-1,000 individuals, although there are more optimistic estimates of up to 4,000 birds. The total population is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: There is no new quantitative information on population size and trend, but this species's prevalence in the illegal wild bird trade, together with the rarity of sightings in the wild, suggest a very rapid and continuing population decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Colombia extant native yes
Guyana extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant introduced yes
Trinidad and Tobago possibly extinct native yes
Venezuela extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Venezuela Parque Nacional El Ávila and surrounding areas
Venezuela Parque Nacional Guatopo
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA)
Venezuela Parque Nacional San Esteban
Venezuela Zona Protectora San Rafael de Guasare
Venezuela Parque Nacional Sierra de San Luis
Venezuela Parque Nacional Terepaima
Venezuela Parque Nacional Yacambú
Guyana South Central Rupununi

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major resident
Altitude 180 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1700 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Spinus cucullatus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/red-siskin-spinus-cucullatus on 23/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 23/02/2024.