Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The species is described as common in most of its range, uncommon to locally common in West Africa, and rather local in East Africa (del Hoyo et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 1,450,000-3,340,000 pairs, which equates to 2,900,000-6,690,000 mature individuals. However, Europe forms a very small part (c.5%) of the global range. It is therefore likely that the species's population falls within the band 10,000,000-500,000,000 mature individuals.
In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was stable (EBCC 2015).
This species is found in open hilly country and mountains, river gorges, valleys, sea cliffs, as well as in cultivated areas and human habitations, including towns. In Europe, breeding occurs from April-September and is usually solitary although sometimes in loose groups. The nest is built by both sexes and is enclosed with a tunnel entrance. It is made of mud pellets sometimes mixed with a little dry grass and lined with a mixture of white feathers, hair, plant down, leaves, pine (Pinus) needles or dry grass. Clutch size varies regionally but is normally four or five in Europe (Turner 2004). The species feeds on insects, taking airborne prey in aerial pursuit (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is migratory in northern parts of the range and mostly resident in the south (Turner 2004). European populations are thought to winter in the savanna zone of the northern Afrotropics (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).
The species may be threatened by competition with other birds which use its nests (Martí and del Moral 2004).
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Population sizes within Europe are poorly known (Turner 2004), so monitoring programmes should be implemented across its range to more accurately determine its status. Research should focus on potential threats to this species.
Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Symes, A. & Ashpole, J
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Cecropis daurica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/12/2021.