Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 116,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,350,000-2,980,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 570-1,700 males, which equates to 1,100-3,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 1,300,000-2,999,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is not known (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population trend is not known (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) U Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda V Extant
Argentina N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Bahamas U Extant
Barbados V Extant
Belgium N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Botswana V Extant
Brazil V Extant Yes
Bulgaria V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominica U Extant
Dominican Republic U Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea U Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gambia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) U Extant
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea V Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary V Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq V Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kiribati V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) U Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand V Extant
Nicaragua U Extant
Nigeria V Extant
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes Yes
Panama U Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) U Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe U Extant
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea V Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Togo V Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) U Extant
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) U Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara U Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Assissut (Braendvinsskaerene) near Kronprinsens Ejland
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Greenland (to Denmark) Heden
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
France Cap Gris-nez
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Heerter See
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok
Canada Goose Island Group and Banks
Canada Brier Island and Offshore Waters
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
Canada Creswell Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Chile Valparaiso - pelagico
Chile San Antonio - Cañón submarino
Chile Isla Guafo
USA Teshekpuk Lake-E. Dease Inlet
Chile Arica Pelágica
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 178W61N
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Norway Dovrefjell
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
USA Kasegaluk Lagoon
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Phalaropus fulicarius. Downloaded from on 06/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 06/12/2022.