Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 116,000,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend unknown suspected -
Generation length (years) 4.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.1,350,000-2,980,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 570-1,700 males, which equates to 1,100-3,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population is therefore placed in the band 1,300,000-2,999,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is not known (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population trend is not known (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola extant native
Anguilla (to UK) extant uncertain
Antarctica extant vagrant
Antigua and Barbuda extant vagrant
Argentina extant native
Australia extant vagrant
Austria extant native yes
Bahamas extant uncertain
Barbados extant vagrant
Belgium extant native
Bermuda (to UK) extant native
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant vagrant
Botswana extant vagrant
Brazil extant vagrant yes
Bulgaria extant vagrant
Cameroon extant vagrant
Canada extant native yes yes
Cape Verde extant native
Chile extant native
China (mainland) extant native
Colombia extant native
Costa Rica extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native
Croatia extant vagrant
Cuba extant native
Cyprus extant vagrant
Czechia extant native
Denmark extant native yes
Dominica extant uncertain
Dominican Republic extant uncertain
Ecuador extant native
Egypt extant native
El Salvador extant native
Equatorial Guinea extant uncertain
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant vagrant
Finland extant vagrant
France extant native yes yes
Gambia extant vagrant
Germany extant native yes yes
Ghana extant vagrant
Gibraltar (to UK) extant vagrant
Greece extant vagrant
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Guadeloupe (to France) extant uncertain
Guatemala extant native
Guinea extant vagrant
Guinea-Bissau extant native
Honduras extant native
Hong Kong (China) extant vagrant
Hungary extant vagrant
Iceland extant native yes
India extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes
Iraq extant vagrant yes
Ireland extant native
Israel extant native yes yes
Italy extant native
Japan extant native
Kazakhstan extant vagrant
Kenya extant vagrant
Kiribati extant vagrant
Kuwait extant vagrant yes
Liberia extant vagrant
Libya extant vagrant
Luxembourg extant vagrant
Malaysia extant native
Malta extant vagrant
Martinique (to France) extant uncertain
Mauritania extant native
Mexico extant native
Montenegro extant vagrant
Morocco extant native
Mozambique extant native
Namibia extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
New Zealand extant vagrant
Nicaragua extant uncertain
Nigeria extant vagrant
Norway extant vagrant
Oman extant vagrant yes yes
Panama extant uncertain
Paraguay extant native
Peru extant native
Philippines extant native
Poland extant vagrant
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant uncertain
Romania extant vagrant
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
São Tomé e Príncipe extant uncertain
Saudi Arabia extant vagrant yes
Senegal extant vagrant
Serbia extant vagrant
Sierra Leone extant vagrant
Slovakia extant vagrant
Slovenia extant vagrant
South Africa extant native
South Korea extant vagrant
Spain extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant vagrant yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant native yes
Sweden extant vagrant
Switzerland extant native
Taiwan, China extant native
Tajikistan extant vagrant
Togo extant vagrant
Tunisia extant vagrant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant uncertain
Ukraine extant vagrant
United Arab Emirates extant vagrant yes
United Kingdom extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant uncertain
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant vagrant
Western Sahara extant uncertain
Zimbabwe extant vagrant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) South coast of Germania Land, and Slaedelandet
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Canada Foxe Basin Islands
USA Teshekpuk Lake-E. Dease Inlet
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Bering Sea Shelf Edge 178W61N
USA Unimak & Akutan Passes
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands
Russia (Asian) Preobrazheniya island
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Lower Nizhnyaya Taymyra river

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Phalaropus fulicarius. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023.