NT
Red-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus ruficollis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bce+3bce+4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Near Threatened A2bce+3bce+4bce
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,910,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,910,000
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 575000-770000 medium estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 13-39,20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 13-39,28 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-10 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.7 - - -

Population justification: There are two recognised subspecies, C. r. ruficollis breeding in northern Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula and C. r. desertorum in northeast Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The European breeding population is estimated at 101,000-135,000 calling males, which equates to 202,000-270,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2021). Europe holds c. 35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 575,000-770,000 mature individuals, although occupancy of the North African range could be considerably lower and it is plausible that most of the global breeding population is concentrated within the Iberian Peninsula. Spain alone holds >95% of the European population (C. Camacho and P. Sáez-Gómez in litt. 2020). This population is estimated to be declining at a rate of 2.3% annually (SEO/BirdLife in litt. 2022), hence the species is inferred to be undergoing a continuing decline suspected to be proceeding at a moderately rapid rate.

Trend justification: The population in Spain is estimated to have declined by 28% (13-39%) over the past three generations, based on the mean slope of trend (-2.3%) estimated from monitoring across the country (347 plots with at least two visits) between 2006-2021 (SEO/BirdLife in litt. 2022). Suspected drivers of the decline are habitat destruction through urbanisation and agriculture, disturbance, road collisions and potentially predation and pollution (del Hoyo et al. 1999, Cleere et al. 2020, Keller et al. 2020, Camacho and Sáez-Gómez 2021). With a large part of the range of the species lacking data on trends or population size (and hence relative proportion of the population), it is tentatively suspected that this rate applies to the entire population, although it is noted that some identified threats such as urbanisation may be less severe outside of the Iberian range. However, climate change is altering fire frequency and intensity throughout the range and habitat conversion or degradation impacts may affect this species in many areas. The precise driver of the decline is not certain, and there is no evidence to suggest that the declines will cease imminently. Consequently the current rate for the past five years of monitoring data is projected for Spain over the period from 2016-2030 and for the future three generations from 2023-2037, and is suspected to be the rate of reduction over these periods for the whole population.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Croatia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
France V Extant
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Italy V Extant
Libya V Extant
Mali N Extant Yes Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Spain Cardó, Tivissa and Llabería mountains
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Montagut and Montmell mountains
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Fausilla mountains
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Ricote and Nevela mountain ranges
Spain Pila mountain range
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Gádor mountain range
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Peñagolosa
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Iruelas valley
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Algeria Belezma
Morocco Parc Naturel de Talassemtane
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba
Morocco Jbel Zerhoun
Morocco Région Fouchal - Matarka
Morocco Tarhazoute
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Dakhla area
Tunisia Plaines de Kairouan
Tunisia Bouhedma
Tunisia Sebkhet Ennoual
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Malcata mountains
Portugal Cabrela

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Timon lepidus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Vulpes vulpes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Seepage from mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Caprimulgus ruficollis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022.