LC
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 1023 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 50,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 80,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-290,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100 breeding pairs, < c.50 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 27,700-47,900 pairs, which equates to 55,400-95,800 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Asvieja
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Lithuania Lake Kasonys and adjacent wetlands
Lithuania Pavezupis fish-ponds
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania Metelys, Dusia & Obelija lakes
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Bulgaria Srebarna
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Fizes valley
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Dannemora
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Sweden Fjord of Kungsbacka
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Ostrówek and Smogulec ponds
Poland Woniesc reservoir
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Marshy Valley of the Narew River
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Nysa reservoir
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Solska Forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Oswin site
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slup reservoir
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Ukraine Burshtyns'ke reservoir
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Velyke marsh
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Forêts du Perche
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Cap Gris-nez
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Val de Saône
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Po Delta
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Kiel Bay and adjacent waters
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Eastern German Bight
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Carska bara
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain
Norway Jæren
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Ørlandet
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Lewitz
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Herbsleben ponds
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Saale-Elster valley
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Ammersee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Eschefeld ponds
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Wendesser moor
Germany Heerter See
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Selent-Plön fishponds
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Rhein: Greffern-Murgmündung-Neuburgweier
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Outer Wismarbucht
Germany Pomeranian bay
Serbia Jegricka
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Denmark Ronne Banke
Poland Pomeranian bay
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Peipsi
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Tagamõisa peninsula
Russia (Central Asian) Starinnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lake Alabota
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (European) Valdajskoe Lake
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Garvansko Marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Arjuzanx
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Quiberon
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Kultansor and Tatysor Lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Tulak lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Akman lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoy Sarykul' lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Beloye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'ko-Solenoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Canada Cardinal Lake
Canada Lakeland
Canada Frank Lake (north)
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Cowichan estuary
Canada Goose Island Group and Banks
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada Saskatchewan River Delta
Canada Riverton Sandy Bar
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Luther Marsh
Canada Lake Huron, Quarry Bay
Canada Owen Channel
Canada Cabot Head
Canada Manitoulin Island North Shore
Canada Tagish Narrows
Canada Cumshewa Inlet north to Sheldens Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Italy Lake Viverone
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Russia (Central Asian) Saltosarayskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Peschanokoledinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Miquelon Island (Northeast Coast)
Germany Riddagshäuser Teiche
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Barnbruch
Germany Hohe Geest near Himbergen / Bad Bodenteich
Germany Braunschweig sewage farms
Germany Rhine flats between mouth of Rench and mouth of Murg
Germany Rhine flats Elchesheim-Karlsruhe
Germany Untermain
Germany Eastern part of German Bight (with Heligoland)
Romania Black Sea
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Poland Insko Site
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Mosty-Zahajki Site
Poland Polesie
Poland Nielisz Site
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Poland Widawa and Olesnica River Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Turek Site
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Poland Sredzka Struga and Maskawa River Valley
Belarus Braslav lakes
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine
USA Prince William Sound
Denmark Rønne Banke
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Kazakhstan Salmanykol lake
Norway Været
Norway Lista wetland system
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Väinameri
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Estonia Lahepera lake
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Sweden Bay of Rynninge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oncorhynchus mykiss Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Podiceps grisegena. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2020.