LC
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 1023.0 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 50,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 80,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-290,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100 breeding pairs, < c.50 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 27,700-47,900 pairs, which equates to 55,400-95,800 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas V Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt V Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia V Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Canada Boundary Bay - Roberts Bank - Sturgeon Bank (Fraser River Estuary)
Canada Lakeland
Canada Manitoulin Island North Shore
Denmark Eastern German Bight
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Ronne Banke
Denmark Rønne Banke
Estonia Vooremaa
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
France Cap Gris-nez
Germany Eastern part of German Bight (with Heligoland)
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Pomeranian bay
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Gulf of Riga, west coast
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Været
Romania Black Sea
Russia (Central Asian) Alabota lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shiye and Maliye Donki lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake
Russia (Central Asian) Chernoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Krutali Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtan Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Man'yass lake
Russia (Central Asian) Peschanokoledinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Saltosarayskoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Schuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shchuch'ye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Stekleney Lake
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Miquelon Island (Northeast Coast)
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Tåkern
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine
USA Prince William Sound
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oncorhynchus mykiss Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Podiceps grisegena. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2019.